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At first sight, it seems scarcely possible that London &.c Actually Survey'd, and A large and Accurate Map of the City of London that preceded it by six yeas having been completed in December 1676, could have been the work of the same team of people. The map of the City seems the very model of merchant sobriety and scientific clarity, combining understated elegance with an almost total lack of decoration. London &.c Actually Survey'd dazzles with its flamboyant use of text as well as image which in places threaten to overwhelm the map. The difference between the two maps can only fully be understood in the context of the very different political situations prevailing at the times of their publications--Peter Barker.
Der Arbeitskreis Bild Druck Papier besteht seit 1981. In ihm sind Wissenschaftler, Sammler und Museologen vertreten, denen das Interesse am Thema Luxuspapier gemeinsam ist. Bei den jährlich stattfindenden Tagungen des Arbeitskreises werden neue Forschungsergebnisse bekanntgegeben, Arbeitsprojekte vorgestellt und Informationen ausgetauscht. Die Tagungsbände enthalten die wichtigsten Referate und Mitteilungen.
The key role played by indentured servants in the settlement and development of the English colonies in the West Indies and the North American mainland in the first century of English colonization has been overshadowed by interest in the much larger later trade in African slaves. 'There is Great Want of Servants' provides the first full examination of the English trade in indentured servants, which delivered the majority of an estimated 457,000 white people who migrated to the American colonies before 1720. English colonisation intended to create 'new Englands out of England' - to enlarge trade and plantation - but settlement required people to work the land. Labour had to be transported over 4,000 miles of threatening ocean in a new system of indentured servitude, in which people paid for their transportation and keep, with four years of unpaid service for adults, and more for children and adolescents. The system was not benign, neither in the sugar plantations of the West Indies and the tobacco plantations of Maryland and Virginia, nor at the centre of the trade in London and in other ports such as Bristol. Merchants, procurers, and masters of ships often used illicit methods to recruit servants as human cargo. Measures to reduce spiriting by making the offence a felony punishable by hanging, or registering servants in new offices, had little effect. The 1718 Transportation Act eased servant recruitment, but when wars in 1689-1697 and 1702-1713 disrupted the supply of servants, and demand for the addictive products of the sugar and tobacco colonies soared in Britain and Europe, white servants were increasingly substituted by African chattel slaves.

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