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The Romans developed sophisticated methods for managing hygiene, including aqueducts for moving water from one place to another, sewers for removing used water from baths and runoff from walkways and roads, and public and private latrines. Through the archeological record, graffiti, sanitation-related paintings, and literature, Ann Olga Koloski-Ostrow explores this little-known world of bathrooms and sewers, offering unique insights into Roman sanitation, engineering, urban planning and development, hygiene, and public health. Focusing on the cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, Ostia, and Rome, Koloski-Ostrow's work challenges common perceptions of Romans' social customs, beliefs about health, tolerance for filth in their cities, and attitudes toward privacy. In charting the complex history of sanitary customs from the late republic to the early empire, Koloski-Ostrow reveals the origins of waste removal technologies and their implications for urban health, past and present.
The fourth edition of Krasner's Microbial Challenge focuses on human-microbe interactions and considers bacterial, viral, prion, protozoan, fungal and helminthic (worm) diseases and is the ideal resource for non-majors, nursing programs, and public health programs.
Newton’s heretical yet equation-incisive writings on theology, spirituality, alchemy, and prophecy, written in secret alongside his Principia Mathematica • Shows how Newton’s brilliance extended far beyond math and science into alchemy, spirituality, prophecy, and the search for lost continents such as Atlantis • Explains how he was seeking to rediscover the one true religion that existed prior to the Flood of Noah, when science and spirituality were one • Examines Newton’s alternate timeline of prehistory and his study of prophecy through the Book of Revelations, including his prediction of Apocalypse in the year 2060 Isaac Newton (1643-1727) is still regarded by the world as the greatest scientist who ever lived. He invented calculus, discovered the binomial theorem, explained the rainbow, built the first reflecting telescope, and explained the force of gravity. In his famous masterpiece, Principia Mathematica, he described the mechanics of the physical universe with unimagined precision, proving the cosmos was put together according to laws. The perfection of these laws implied a perfect legislator. To Newton, they were proof that God existed. At the same time Newton was writing Principia Mathematica, he was writing a twin volume that he might have called, had it been completed, Principia Theologia--Principles of Theology. This other masterpiece of Newton, kept secret because of the heresies it contained, consists of thousands of essays providing equation-incisive answers to the spiritual questions that have plagued mankind through the ages. Examining Newton’s secret writings, John Chambers shows how his brilliance extended into alchemy, spirituality, the search for lost continents such as Atlantis, and a quest to uncover the “corrupted texts” that were rife in the Bibles of his time. Although he was a devout Christian, Newton’s work on the Bible was focused not on restoring the original Jewish and Christian texts but on rediscovering the one true religion that existed prior to the Flood of Noah, when science and spirituality were one. The author shows that a single thread runs through Newton’s metaphysical explorations: He is attempting to chart the descent of man’s soul from perfection to the present day. The author also examines Newton’s alternate timeline of ancient history and his study of prophecy through the Book of Revelations, including his prediction of an Apocalypse in the year 2060 followed by a radically transformed world. He shows that Newton’s great hope was that these writings would provide a moral compass for humanity as it embarked upon the great enterprise that became our technological world.
This article seeks to define ‘water culture’ in Roman society by examining literary, epigraphic, and archaeological evidence, while understanding modern trends in scholarship related to the study of Roman water.
La publication repose sur les fouilles menées à l'agora de Palmyre par H. Seyrig et R. Duru en 1939et 1940. Complétées dans les années 1960 par le dégagement, conduit par la Direction Générale des Antiquités et des Musées de Syrie, d'un bâtiment voisin appelé " salle annexe ", ces recherches étaient largement restées inédites. Reprenant l'ensemble de la documentation dispersée entre Damas, Beyrouth, Strasbourg et Bordeaux, les auteurs fournissent une nouvelle chronologie ainsi qu'une nouvelle interprétation de ce groupe monumental (agora-forum entre basilique et curie), qui repose sur l'étude des inscriptions (étude entamée dans les années 1970 sous la direction d'Ed. Frézouls) et des consoles, du décor architectural et de la sculpture. Cet ensemble est réintégré dans une compréhension globale de la documentation palmyrénienne. L'étude de ce complexe monumental conduit également à redéfinir l'évolution de l'urbanisme de la ville. Au terme de cette analyse, apparaît qu'une forte volonté impériale a imposé comme un modèle romain -forum entre basilique et curie- dans ces terres des confins orientaux de l'Empire romain par ailleurs imprégnés de culture parthe.
رواية البؤساء من أشهر روايات القرن التاسع عشر وفيها رصد فيكتور هوجو الحياة الإجتماعية التى عاشها الفرنسيون خلال الفترة بين سقوط نابليون فى عام 1918 والثورة التى حُكم عليها بالفشل ضد الملك لويس فيليب فى عام 1832

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