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All of the sciences — physical, biological, and social — have a need for quantitative measurement. This influential series, Foundations of Measurement, established the formal basis for measurement, justifying the assignment of numbers to objects in terms of their structural correspondence. Volume I introduces the distinct mathematical results that serve to formulate numerical representations of qualitative structures. Volume II extends the subject in the direction of geometrical, threshold, and probabilistic representations, and Volume III examines representation as expressed in axiomatization and invariance.