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The discovery of a new elementary particle at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in 2012 made headlines in world media. Since we already know of a large number of elementary particles, why did this latest discovery generate so much excitement? This small book reveals that this particle provides the key to understanding one of the most extraordinary phenomena which occurred in the early Universe. It introduces the mechanism that made possible, within tiny fractions of a second after the Big Bang, the generation of massive particles. The Origin of Mass is a guided tour of cosmic evolution, from the Big Bang to the elementary particles we study in our accelerators today. The guiding principle of this book is a concept of symmetry which, in a profound and fascinating way, seems to determine the structure of the Universe.
From the infinitesimal scale of particle physics to the cosmic scale of the universe, research is concerned with the nature of mass. While there have been spectacular advances in physics during the past century, mass still remains a mysterious entity at the forefront of current research. Our current perspective on gravitation has arisen over millennia, through the contemplation of falling apples, lift thought experiments and notions of stars spiraling into black holes. In this volume, the world’s leading scientists offer a multifaceted approach to mass by giving a concise and introductory presentation based on insights from their respective fields of research on gravity. The main theme is mass and its motion within general relativity and other theories of gravity, particularly for compact bodies. Within this framework, all articles are tied together coherently, covering post-Newtonian and related methods as well as the self-force approach to the analysis of motion in curved space-time, closing with an overview of the historical development and a snapshot on the actual state of the art. All contributions reflect the fundamental role of mass in physics, from issues related to Newton’s laws, to the effect of self-force and radiation reaction within theories of gravitation, to the role of the Higgs boson in modern physics. High-precision measurements are described in detail, modified theories of gravity reproducing experimental data are investigated as alternatives to dark matter, and the fundamental problem of reconciling any theory of gravity with the physics of quantum fields is addressed. Auxiliary chapters set the framework for theoretical contributions within the broader context of experimental physics. The book is based upon the lectures of the CNRS School on Mass held in Orléans, France, in June 2008. All contributions have been anonymously refereed and, with the cooperation of the authors, revised by the editors to ensure overall consistency.
Part of the Physics in a New Era series of assessments of the various branches of the field, Elementary-Particle Physics reviews progress in the field over the past 10 years and recommends actions needed to address the key questions that remain unanswered. It explains in simple terms the present picture of how matter is constructed. As physicists have probed ever deeper into the structure of matter, they have begun to explore one of the most fundamental questions that one can ask about the universe: What gives matter its mass? A new international accelerator to be built at the European laboratory CERN will begin to explore some of the mechanisms proposed to give matter its heft. The committee recommends full U.S. participation in this project as well as various other experiments and studies to be carried out now and in the longer term.
Is it possible to take a set of particle masses and then work backwards to find a hidden symmetry? Does the Higgs Boson have a partner particle and might that particle solve the mystery of dark matter? Can the tiny masses of neutrinos be predicted? Prime Symmetry and Particle Physics begins with the understanding that the constant π does not have to be measured in spacetime: it can be calculated from a set of real numbers. Former PhD student, George Brewer explores the idea that if this is true of π, why not of other constants? A standard model of physics predicts interactions between quantum fields when particles scatter, but 26 numbers, dimensionless constants for force strengths and the masses of elementary particles, still need to be put into that model. Brewer proposes that many of those constants can actually be calculated from a single equation and a set of integer parameters – a theory that he calls the prime symmetry model. Comparing a set of measured constants against their calculated counterparts provides good evidence for the model's validity. Brewer opens the door for readers to join a select group with information that theorists and experimentalists at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are yet to consider, offering them the opportunity to verify the model’s deceptively simple mathematics for themselves, simply by using an online scientific calculator. Inspired by Albert Einstein, Stephen Hawking and Sean Carroll, Prime Symmetry and Particle Physics is an essential read for all particle physics enthusiasts. The book will also appeal to readers interested in the Higgs boson events at the LHC.
The development in our understanding of symmetry principles is reviewed. Many symmetries, such as charge conjugation, parity and strangeness, are no longer considered as fundamental but as natural consequences of a gauge field theory of strong and electromagnetic interactions. Other symmetries arise naturally from physical models in some limiting situation, such as for low energy or low mass. Random dynamics and attempts to explain all symmetries ? even Lorentz invariance and gauge invariance ? without appealing to any fundamental invariance of the laws of nature are discussed. A selection of original papers is reprinted.
The Second Cairo International Conference on High Energy Physics (CICHEP II) was held at the German University in Cairo, Egypt from 14-17 January 2006. The purpose of the conference was to bring together specialized scientists in the field of High Energy Physics from universities and research institutes from all around the world to discuss current developments and new trends, results, and perspectives in this field.
Proceedings of a NATO ASI held in Cargèse, France, August 5-17, 1996

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