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Discusses the significance of totemism among primitive peoples and its interpretation by anthropologists and philosophies
Professor Goody's research in West Africa resulted in finding an alternative way of thinking about 'traditional' societies.
Von 1989 bis 2000 hat Claude Lévi-Strauss für die italienische Zeitung ”La Repubblica“ sechzehn Artikel verfasst, in denen er aktuelle Ereignisse und Tendenzen der modernen Gesellschaft begleitend kommentiert. Zusammen mit seinem legendären Essay ”Der hingerichtete Weihnachtsmann“ erscheinen diese kleinen Meisterwerke nun erstmals in einem Band versammelt in deutscher Sprache. Die Themenvielfalt der Stücke ist schier überwältigend: Aus Anlass des Todes von Lady Di unternimmt Lévi-Strauss eine Analyse der Bedeutung von Verwandtschaftsverhältnissen, eines seiner großen Lebensthemen; er setzt sich mit dem Bevölkerungswachstum und der Entwicklung des Menschen seit seiner Entstehung in Afrika auseinander, mit der Massentierhaltung und der Landwirtschaft oder mit den heftig diskutierten Ritualen der Beschneidung von Mädchen und Jungen in verschiedenen Kulturen; die Organtransplantation wird ebenso behandelt wie das Denken Michel de Montaignes oder Auguste Comtes; und in dem titelgebenden Essay ”Wir sind alle Kannibalen“ vergleicht er die Epidemie des Rinderwahnsinns auf kongeniale Weise mit der Krankheit Kuru, die sich in Papua-Neuguinea zu Beginn des letzten Jahrhunderts durch eine Form von Kannibalismus seuchenartig verbreitete. Ein Buch, das den ungeheuren Gedankenreichtum sowie den Scharfsinn und die Originalität eines der ganz großen Intellektuellen des 20. Jahrhunderts exemplarisch vor Augen führt. (Quelle:
From its inception at the time of the Enlightenment until the mid-twentieth century, the historical-critical method constituted the dominant paradigm in Old Testament studies. In this magisterial overview, Niels Peter Lemche surveys the development of the historical-critical method and the way it changed the scholarly perception of the Old Testament. In part 1 he describes the rise and influence of historical-critical approaches, while in part 2 he traces their decline and fall. Then, in part 3, he discusses the identity of the authors of the Old Testament, based on the content of the literature they wrote, demonstrating that the collapse of history does not preclude critical study. Part 4 investigates the theological consequences of this collapse and surveys Old Testament and biblical theology in its various manifestations in the twentieth century. An appendix includes a history of Palestine from the Stone Age to modern times, constructed without recourse to the Old Testament.
An exercise of interdisciplinarity at the crossroads of humans and the environment--this could be one definition of human ecology, as it is demonstrated within this book. Examples of different branches of human ecology are shown as feasible alternatives to understand the interactions of human culture and behaviour with the natural environment from all parts of the world. Current trends, ranging from climate change to ecological knowledge and environmental co-management are deeply exploited, using a diversified array of empirical case studies. Theoretical aspects are included and examined in every case, including the evolution of culture, values and webs of information within cultures. The central theme approaches and reveals the social, cultural, economic, and ecological processes which link human beings to their environment. From a mixture of practice and theory we emerge with alternatives to mitigate and prevent the accelerating negative changes currently witnessed on our planet, where increasingly fewer people are safe. More importantly, this book provides examples showing how those whose lives are deeply rooted on a direct natural resource dependency are the first to be affected by the global trend of environmental degradation. Small-scale fishers, farmers and herders from the tropics and from cold regions have their livelihood affected by global changes, regional politics and cultural exchanges. Whether and how they will survive, adapt, or embody such changes is not known and this is one more reason to include and involve local groups when searching for sustainable solutions. In a changing world, exploring current threats and impacts of human actions on the environment is a necessity, but bringing about alternatives, some of them already part of traditional human practices, is urgent and can turn to be a promising solution. Anthropology, sociology, and ecology come together in this book, where the unifying goal of theorizing and practising interdisciplinarity in human ecology is shown by, closely tracking examples of current trends and developments. This book is a harvest from the XV International Meeting of the Society for Human Ecology, engaging over 200 people from 27 countries from all continents, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, October 4-7, 2007, organized by A. Begossi and P. Lopes, with the support of the Fisheries and Food Institute (FIFO) and the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP). This volume ends by indicating several lines of thought and of analyses on current subjects, as follows: sustainability in different cultural contexts and perspectives, methods towards approaching sustainable systems, and current global concerns. Those include agriculture in tropical areas (slash-and-burn practices), climate change, and nature and human behavioural patterns, among others.

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