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How does life work? How does nature produce the right numbers of zebras and lions on the African savanna, or fish in the ocean? How do our bodies produce the right numbers of cells in our organs and bloodstream? In The Serengeti Rules, award-winning biologist and author Sean Carroll tells the stories of the pioneering scientists who sought the answers to such simple yet profoundly important questions, and shows how their discoveries matter for our health and the health of the planet we depend upon. One of the most important revelations about the natural world is that everything is regulated—there are rules that regulate the amount of every molecule in our bodies and rules that govern the numbers of every animal and plant in the wild. And the most surprising revelation about the rules that regulate life at such different scales is that they are remarkably similar—there is a common underlying logic of life. Carroll recounts how our deep knowledge of the rules and logic of the human body has spurred the advent of revolutionary life-saving medicines, and makes the compelling case that it is now time to use the Serengeti Rules to heal our ailing planet. A bold and inspiring synthesis by one of our most accomplished biologists and gifted storytellers, The Serengeti Rules is the first book to illuminate how life works at vastly different scales. Read it and you will never look at the world the same way again.
'A passionately personal, robustly argued and uplifting book . . . One of the landmark ecological books of the decade.' Sunday Times 'Books of the Year' In Wilding, Isabella Tree tells the story of the ‘Knepp experiment’, a pioneering rewilding project in West Sussex, using free-roaming grazing animals to create new habitats for wildlife. Part gripping memoir, part fascinating account of the ecology of our countryside, Wilding is, above all, an inspiring story of hope. Forced to accept that intensive farming on the heavy clay of their land at Knepp was economically unsustainable, Isabella Tree and her husband Charlie Burrell made a spectacular leap of faith: they decided to step back and let nature take over. Thanks to the introduction of free-roaming cattle, ponies, pigs and deer – proxies of the large animals that once roamed Britain – the 3,500 acre project has seen extraordinary increases in wildlife numbers and diversity in little over a decade. Extremely rare species, including turtle doves, nightingales, peregrine falcons, lesser spotted woodpeckers and purple emperor butterflies, are now breeding at Knepp, and populations of other species are rocketing. The Burrells’ degraded agricultural land has become a functioning ecosystem again, heaving with life – all by itself. Personal and inspirational, Wilding is an astonishing account of the beauty and strength of nature, when it is given as much freedom as possible.
There is strong evidence for the observation that psychological risk factors, such as depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and anxiety are associated with higher risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD), and also contribute to a worse prognosis among CHD patients. Much less is known about psychological resources, such as Mastery, and their role in cardiovascular medicine. Although the current state of science about the importance of psychological factors has advanced during the last decades, the mental health status of patients is often neglected in clinical practice. The reason behind this gap is multifaceted, including unawareness of the current state of science among professionals and a lack of clear guideline, which in turn, results from a lack of evidence-based ways to address the issues. Furthermore, the measurement of psychological resources is complex and a debated topic in psychology. The aim of this thesis was to investigate: 1) If the use of inverted items in three questionnaires that measure psychological resources and risk factors represent a validity risk in the context of CHD. 2) If psychological resources and risk factors are independently associated with incidence in CHD. 3) If an eight-week course in Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a feasible psychological intervention, as an addition to cardiac rehabilitation. 4) How CHD patients experience the practices of mindfulness and yoga in MBSR. In Study I and II, data from 1007 participants randomly selected from a Swedish community sample, aged 45-69 at baseline (50 % women), were analysed. To study the validity of the self-report instruments Mastery, Self-esteem and Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CESD), subscales with only positive and negative items were created. The new subscales were evaluated against three criterion measures; cross-sectional against each other and the circulatory marker of inflammation interleukine-6 (IL-6) (concurrent construct validity); prospectively against 8-year incidence in CHD (predictive validity), and in addition, a factor analysis was used to investigate construct dimensionality. The instruments seemed to be valid measures of psychological resources and risk factors in the context of CHD risk. The new subscales showed the same associations as the original scales, except for the positive items in CES-D. However, this did not have a major influence on the full scale. In Study II a prospective analysis of the impact of psychological factors on 8-year incidence in CHD was performed. The psychological resources Mastery and Self-esteem were negatively associated with CHD, also after adjustment for nine traditional cardiovascular risk factors in Cox proportional hazard models. The protective effect of the two resources, and the increased risk of Hopelessness, remained after adjustment for depressive symptoms. In Study III and IV, a group of CHD patients with depressive symptoms (n=79) was invited to participate in MBSR as a complement to cardiac rehabilitation. Twenty-four patients started MBSR and 16 completed it. The results were compared with a reference group (n=108) of patients from the same clinic, which showed stability in psychological variables over 12 months. MBSR was appreciated by the patients and improvements in psychological risk factors (e.g., depressive symptoms), and an increase in Mastery were observed. Study IV made use of a qualitative content analysis of diary entries written by patients immediately after practice sessions throughout MBSR. Participants described difficulties, both physical and psychological, during the whole course, but as the weeks passed they more frequently described an enhanced ability to concentrate, relax and deal with distractions. From the combined findings in Study III and IV, we conclude that MBSR could be a promising complement to cardiac rehabilitation for a selection of patients. The overall picture, emerging from this thesis, strengthens the argument that psychological factors should be recognized and addressed in clinical practice. It also encourages further studies of how psychological resources could be built, which could inform the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies for CHD patients with psychological distress and also contribute to improved public health interventions.
This book deals with applications of quantum mechanical techniques to areas outside of quantum mechanics, so-called quantum-like modeling. Research in this area has grown over the last 15 years. But even already more than 50 years ago, the interaction between Physics Nobelist Pauli and the psychologist Carl Jung in the 1950's on seeking to find analogous uses of the complementarity principle from quantum mechanics in psychology needs noting. This book does NOT want to advance that society is quantum mechanical! The macroscopic world is manifestly not quantum mechanical. But this rules not out that one can use concepts and the mathematical apparatus from quantum physics in a macroscopic environment. A mainstay ingredient of quantum mechanics, is 'quantum probability' and this tool has been proven to be useful in the mathematical modelling of decision making. In the most basic experiment of quantum physics, the double slit experiment, it is known (from the works of A. Khrennikov) that the law of total probability is violated. It is now well documented that several decision making paradoxes in psychology and economics (such as the Ellsberg paradox) do exhibit this violation of the law of total probability. When data is collected with experiments which test 'non-rational' decision making behaviour, one can observe that such data often exhibits a complex non-commutative structure, which may be even more complex than if one considers the structure allied to the basic two slit experiment. The community exploring quantum-like models has tried to address how quantum probability can help in better explaining those paradoxes. Research has now been published in very high standing journals on resolving some of the paradoxes with the mathematics of quantum physics. The aim of this book is to collect the contributions of world's leading experts in quantum like modeling in decision making, psychology, cognition, economics, and finance.
This book explores how Artificial Intelligence (AI), by leading to an increase in the autonomy of machines and robots, is offering opportunities for an expanded but uncertain impact on society by humans, machines, and robots. To help readers better understand the relationships between AI, autonomy, humans and machines that will help society reduce human errors in the use of advanced technologies (e.g., airplanes, trains, cars), this edited volume presents a wide selection of the underlying theories, computational models, experimental methods, and field applications. While other literature deals with these topics individually, this book unifies the fields of autonomy and AI, framing them in the broader context of effective integration for human-autonomous machine and robotic systems. The contributions, written by world-class researchers and scientists, elaborate on key research topics at the heart of effective human-machine-robot-systems integration. These topics include, for example, computational support for intelligence analyses; the challenge of verifying today’s and future autonomous systems; comparisons between today’s machines and autism; implications of human information interaction on artificial intelligence and errors; systems that reason; the autonomy of machines, robots, buildings; and hybrid teams, where hybrid reflects arbitrary combinations of humans, machines and robots. The contributors span the field of autonomous systems research, ranging from industry and academia to government. Given the broad diversity of the research in this book, the editors strove to thoroughly examine the challenges and trends of systems that implement and exhibit AI; the social implications of present and future systems made autonomous with AI; systems with AI seeking to develop trusted relationships among humans, machines, and robots; and the effective human systems integration that must result for trust in these new systems and their applications to increase and to be sustained.

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