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The stadium century traces the history of stadia and mass spectatorship in modern France from the vélodromes of the late nineteenth century to the construction of the Stade de France before the 1998 soccer World Cup. As the book demonstrates, the stadium was at the centre of debates over public health and urban development and proved to be a key space for mobilising the urban crowd for political rallies and spectator sporting events alike. After 1945, the transformed French stadium constituted part of the process of postwar modernisation but also was increasingly connected to global transformations to the spaces and practices of sport. Drawing from a wide range of sources, the stadium century links the histories of French urbanism, mass politics and sport through the stadium in an innovative work that will appeal to historians, students of French history and the history of sport, and general readers alike.
This study of tangible and intangible cultural heritage explains the significance of nobles' conservationist traditions for public engagement with the history of France. During the French Revolution nobles' property was seized, destroyed, or sold off by the nation. State intervention during the nineteenth century meant historic monuments became protected under law in the public interest. The Journées du Patrimoine, created in 1984 by the French Ministry for Culture, became a Europe-wide calendar event in 1991. Each year millions of French and international visitors enter residences and museums to admire France's aristocratic cultural heritage. Drawing on archival evidence from across the country, the book presents a compelling account of power, interest and emotion in family dynamics and nobles' relations with rural and urban communities.
Organized alphabetically by country, then by city, this reference on Asia, the Pacific and the Asiatic Middle includes information on geography and climate, population, government, arts and education, and transportation.
``````هملت```` .. مسرحية تراجيدية، تعد أحد روائع الكلاسيكيات العالمية، وهي تجسد مأساة تمزق الروابط الأخوية من أجل الوثوب إلى العروش الملكية، وقد اعتمد شكسبير في هذه المسرحية على عنصر المفارقة التي تجلت في شخصية ````هملت```` بطل هذه المسرحية، فقد جمع فيها بين الشخص المحب لحبيبته ````أوفيليا```` وبين الشخص الثائر لدماء أبيه الذي اغتيل بسيف شقيقه ````كلوديوس```` والد ````أوفيليا````. وقد أقام شكسبير مسرحيته على دعامتين إحداهما نثرية قصصية، والثانية مسرحية حوارية، أيضا اعتمد على العنصر الرمزي، وقد تجلى ذلك في استخدامه لشجرة الصفصاف التي تسلقتها ````أوفيليا````، لتعلق على أحد أغصانها تاجا من الأزهار تخليدا لذكرى أبيها الذي قتله ````هملت````، وقد اختار شكسبير هذه الشجرة خصيصا لدلالتها الحزينة. ``

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