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Are more people being imprisoned throughout the world? Why is imprisonment still being used on a wide scale when an increasing number of alternatives are available? What are the major developments in prison law in the last decade? What problems arise in prison systems when states become constitutional democracies for the first time? Should prisons be privatized? How can prison conditions and prisoners' rights be improved? What special measures should there be for women, juveniles, violent offenders or drug addicts in prison? What programmes work effectively under which conditions? The second edition of "Imprisonment Today and Tomorrow" presents much fresh information in its attempts to provide answers to these and other crucial questions. It provides authoritative accounts by leading national experts on the place of imprisonment in 26 penal systems of major countries throughout the world. In addition, through the chapters on the work of the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman and Degrading Punishment, non-governmental organizations and the United Nations, it sheds new light on international initiatives to promote prison standards. These are complemented by a comparative survey of world prison populations and a final chapter in which the editors evaluate developments described in this volume and elsewhere in order to arrive at conclusions about international trends and to make well-grounded proposals for prison reform.