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Prior to the 1970's a substantial literature had accumulated on the theory of optimal design, particularly of optimal linear regression design. To a certain extent the study of the subject had been piecemeal, different criteria of optimality having been studied separately. Also to a certain extent the topic was regarded as being largely of theoretical interest and as having little value for the practising statistician. However during this decade two significant developments occurred. It was observed that the various different optimality criteria had several mathematical properties in common; and general algorithms for constructing optimal design measures were developed. From the first of these there emerged a general theory of remarkable simplicity and the second at least raised the possibility that the theory would have more practical value. With respect to the second point there does remain a limiting factor as far as designs that are optimal for parameter estimation are concerned, and this is that the theory assumes that the model be collected is known a priori. This of course underlying data to is seldom the case in practice and it often happens that designs which are optimal for parameter estimation allow no possibility of model validation. For this reason the theory of design for parameter estimation may well have to be combined with a theory of model validation before its practical potential is fully realized. Nevertheless discussion in this monograph is limited to the theory of design optimal for parameter estimation.
This is a softcover reprint of the English translation of 1968 of N. Bourbaki's, Théorie des Ensembles (1970).
Each volume of Nicolas Bourbakis well-known work, The Elements of Mathematics, contains a section or chapter devoted to the history of the subject. This book collects together those historical segments with an emphasis on the emergence, development, and interaction of the leading ideas of the mathematical theories presented in the Elements. In particular, the book provides a highly readable account of the evolution of algebra, geometry, infinitesimal calculus, and of the concepts of number and structure, from the Babylonian era through to the 20th century.
Since its inception in the famous 1936 paper by Birkhoff and von Neumann entitled “The logic of quantum mechanics quantum logic, i.e. the logical investigation of quantum mechanics, has undergone an enormous development. Various schools of thought and approaches have emerged and there are a variety of technical results. Quantum logic is a heterogeneous field of research ranging from investigations which may be termed logical in the traditional sense to studies focusing on structures which are on the border between algebra and logic. For the latter structures the term quantum structures is appropriate. The chapters of this Handbook, which are authored by the most eminent scholars in the field, constitute a comprehensive presentation of the main schools, approaches and results in the field of quantum logic and quantum structures. Much of the material presented is of recent origin representing the frontier of the subject. The present volume focuses on quantum structures. Among the structures studied extensively in this volume are, just to name a few, Hilbert lattices, D-posets, effect algebras MV algebras, partially ordered Abelian groups and those structures underlying quantum probability. - Written by eminent scholars in the field of logic - A comprehensive presentation of the theory, approaches and results in the field of quantum logic - Volume focuses on quantum structures
"Is quantum logic really logic?" This book argues for a positive answer to this question once and for all. There are many quantum logics and their structures are delightfully varied. The most radical aspect of quantum reasoning is reflected in unsharp quantum logics, a special heterodox branch of fuzzy thinking. For the first time, the whole story of Quantum Logic is told; from its beginnings to the most recent logical investigations of various types of quantum phenomena, including quantum computation. Reasoning in Quantum Theory is designed for logicians, yet amenable to advanced graduate students and researchers of other disciplines.
The present volume of the Handbook of the History of Logic brings together two of the most important developments in 20th century non-classical logic. These are many-valuedness and non-monotonicity. On the one approach, in deference to vagueness, temporal or quantum indeterminacy or reference-failure, sentences that are classically non-bivalent are allowed as inputs and outputs to consequence relations. Many-valued, dialetheic, fuzzy and quantum logics are, among other things, principled attempts to regulate the flow-through of sentences that are neither true nor false. On the second, or non-monotonic, approach, constraints are placed on inputs (and sometimes on outputs) of a classical consequence relation, with a view to producing a notion of consequence that serves in a more realistic way the requirements of real-life inference. Many-valued logics produce an interesting problem. Non-bivalent inputs produce classically valid consequence statements, for any choice of outputs. A major task of many-valued logics of all stripes is to fashion an appropriately non-classical relation of consequence. The chief preoccupation of non-monotonic (and default) logicians is how to constrain inputs and outputs of the consequence relation. In what is called “left non-monotonicity , it is forbidden to add new sentences to the inputs of true consequence-statements. The restriction takes notice of the fact that new information will sometimes override an antecedently (and reasonably) derived consequence. In what is called “right non-monotonicity , limitations are imposed on outputs of the consequence relation. Most notably, perhaps, is the requirement that the rule of or-introduction not be given free sway on outputs. Also prominent is the effort of paraconsistent logicians, both preservationist and dialetheic, to limit the outputs of inconsistent inputs, which in classical contexts are wholly unconstrained. In some instances, our two themes coincide. Dialetheic logics are a case in point. Dialetheic logics allow certain selected sentences to have, as a third truth value, the classical values of truth and falsity together. So such logics also admit classically inconsistent inputs. A central task is to construct a right non-monotonic consequence relation that allows for these many-valued, and inconsistent, inputs. The Many Valued and Non-Monotonic Turn in Logic is an indispensable research tool for anyone interested in the development of logic, including researchers, graduate and senior undergraduate students in logic, history of logic, mathematics, history of mathematics, computer science, AI, linguistics, cognitive science, argumentation theory, and the history of ideas. Detailed and comprehensive chapters covering the entire range of modal logic. Contains the latest scholarly discoveries and interprative insights that answers many questions in the field of logic.

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