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This volume contains the proceedings of the conference on tropical geometry and integrable systems, held July 3-8, 2011, at the University of Glasgow, United Kingdom. One of the aims of this conference was to bring together researchers in the field of tropical geometry and its applications, from apparently disparate ends of the spectrum, to foster a mutual understanding and establish a common language which will encourage further developments of the area. This aim is reflected in these articles, which cover areas from automata, through cluster algebras, to enumerative geometry. In addition, two survey articles are included which introduce ideas from researchers on one end of this spectrum to researchers on the other. This book is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in tropical geometry and integrable systems and the developing links between these two areas.
Ideas and techniques from the theory of integrable systems are playing an increasingly important role in geometry. Thanks to the development of tools from Lie theory, algebraic geometry, symplectic geometry, and topology, classical problems are investigated more systematically. New problems are also arising in mathematical physics. A major international conference was held at the University of Tokyo in July 2000. It brought together scientists in all of the areas influenced by integrable systems. This book is the first of three collections of expository and research articles. This volume focuses on differential geometry. It is remarkable that many classical objects in surface theory and submanifold theory are described as integrable systems. Having such a description generally reveals previously unnoticed symmetries and can lead to surprisingly explicit solutions.Surfaces of constant curvature in Euclidean space, harmonic maps from surfaces to symmetric spaces, and analogous structures on higher-dimensional manifolds are some of the examples that have broadened the horizons of differential geometry, bringing a rich supply of concrete examples into the theory of integrable systems. Many of the articles in this volume are written by prominent researchers and will serve as introductions to the topics. It is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in integrable systems and their relations to differential geometry, topology, algebraic geometry, and physics. The second volume from this conference, also available from the 'AMS', is ""Integrable Systems, Topology, and Physics, Volume 309"" in the ""Contemporary Mathematics"" series. The forthcoming third volume will be published by the Mathematical Society of Japan and will be available outside of Japan from the 'AMS' in the ""Advanced Studies in Pure Mathematics"" series.
This volume contains the proceedings of the AMS Special Session on Algebraic and Geometric Aspects of Integrable Systems and Random Matrices, held from January 6-7, 2012, in Boston, MA. The very wide range of topics represented in this volume illustrates
Since the time of Lagrange and Euler, it has been well known that an understanding of algebraic curves can illuminate the picture of rigid bodies provided by classical mechanics. A modern view of the role played by algebraic geometry has been established iby many mathematicians. This book presents some of these techniques, which fall within the orbit of finite dimensional integrable systems. The main body of the text presents a rich assortment of methods and ideas from algebraic geometry prompted by classical mechanics, whilst in appendices the general, abstract theory is described. The methods are given a topological application to the study of Liouville tori and their bifurcations. The book is based on courses for graduate students given by the author at Strasbourg University but the wealth of original ideas will make it also appeal to researchers.
Ideas and techniques from the theory of integrable systems are playing an increasingly important role in geometry. Thanks to the development of tools from Lie theory, algebraic geometry, symplectic geometry, and topology, classical problems are investigated more systematically. New problems are also arising in mathematical physics. A major international conference was held at the University of Tokyo in July 2000. It brought together scientists in all of the areas influenced by integrable systems. This book is the second of three collections of expository and research articles. This volume focuses on topology and physics. The role of zero curvature equations outside of the traditional context of differential geometry has been recognized relatively recently, but it has been an extraordinarily productive one, and most of the articles in this volume make some reference to it.Symplectic geometry, Floer homology, twistor theory, quantum cohomology, and the structure of special equations of mathematical physics, such as the Toda field equations - all of these areas have gained from the integrable systems point of view and contributed to it. Many of the articles in this volume are written by prominent researchers and will serve as introductions to the topics. It is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in integrable systems and their relations to differential geometry, topology, algebraic geometry, and physics. The first volume from this conference, also available from the 'AMS', is ""Differential Geometry and Integrable Systems, Volume 308"" in the ""Contemporary Mathematics"" series. The forthcoming third volume will be published by the Mathematical Society of Japan and will be available outside of Japan from the 'AMS' in the ""Advanced Studies in Pure Mathematics"" series.
Vertex algebras are algebraic objects that encapsulate the concept of operator product expansion from two-dimensional conformal field theory. Vertex algebras are fast becoming ubiquitous in many areas of modern mathematics, with applications to representation theory, algebraic geometry, the theory of finite groups, modular functions, topology, integrable systems, and combinatorics. This book is an introduction to the theory of vertex algebras with a particular emphasis on the relationship with the geometry of algebraic curves. The notion of a vertex algebra is introduced in a coordinate-independent way, so that vertex operators become well defined on arbitrary smooth algebraic curves, possibly equipped with additional data, such as a vector bundle. Vertex algebras then appear as the algebraic objects encoding the geometric structure of various moduli spaces associated with algebraic curves. Therefore they may be used to give a geometric interpretation of various questions of representation theory. The book contains many original results, introduces important new concepts, and brings new insights into the theory of vertex algebras. The authors have made a great effort to make the book self-contained and accessible to readers of all backgrounds. Reviewers of the first edition anticipated that it would have a long-lasting influence on this exciting field of mathematics and would be very useful for graduate students and researchers interested in the subject. This second edition, substantially improved and expanded, includes several new topics, in particular an introduction to the Beilinson-Drinfeld theory of factorization algebras and the geometric Langlands correspondence.
Quantum cohomology has its origins in symplectic geometry and algebraic geometry, but is deeply related to differential equations and integrable systems. This text explains what is behind the extraordinary success of quantum cohomology, leading to its connections with many existing areas of mathematics as well as its appearance in new areas such as mirror symmetry. Certain kinds of differential equations (or D-modules) provide the key links between quantum cohomology and traditional mathematics; these links are the main focus of the book, and quantum cohomology and other integrable PDEs such as the KdV equation and the harmonic map equation are discussed within this unified framework. Aimed at graduate students in mathematics who want to learn about quantum cohomology in a broad context, and theoretical physicists who are interested in the mathematical setting, the text assumes basic familiarity with differential equations and cohomology.

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