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Sixteen years into the AIDS epidemic, our understandings of the virus, its transmis sion, modes of controlling blood banks and testing are relatively well established. In the last decade, we have also experienced an astonishing amount ofnew social science research ena bling us to better understand concepts like risk taking, gender-related prevention, women's health, and youth psychology,just to mention a few. In almost every country in the world, efforts have been made to respond affirmatively to the challenge of stopping the further spread of HIVI AIDS. Educational interventions have ranged from re-inventing the wheel to innovative programs, using a variety of health educa tion methods. The field of evaluation research now provides us a better understanding of what works and what does not work. Issues relating to human rights, the relationship be tween the affected and the healthlmedical professional communities, and to the inequality in the delivery ofpreventive and educational services are becoming an important part ofthe de bates and discussions in the concerned societies.