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A definitive guide, this book focuses on the design and construction of water infrastructure projects within karst formations and provides engineering approaches for preventing and mitigating their environmental problems. It features 200 figures, investigative techniques, practical design solutions, case studies with failure analysis, criteria proposals for groundwater protection zoning, and an extensive review of the unique hydrogeological dynamics. The author presents a wealth of data collected during his role as investigating and designing hydrogeologist on karst projects. He gives readers a better understanding of the challenges involved in engineering and construction in karst formations.
This practical training guidebook makes an important contribution to karst hydrogeology. It presents supporting material for academic courses worldwide that include this and similar topics. It is an excellent sourcebook for students and other attendees of the International Karst School: Characterization and Engineering of Karst Aquifers, which opened in Trebinje, Bosnia & Herzegovina in 2014 and which will be organized every year in early summer. As opposed to more theoretical works, this is a catalog of possible engineering interventions in karst and their implications. Although the majority of readers will be professionals with geology/hydrogeology backgrounds, the language is not purely technical making it accessible to a wider audience. This means that the methodology, case studies and experiences presented will also benefit water managers working in karst environments.
This volume has its roots in the distant past of more than 20 years ago, the International Hydrologic Decade (IHD), 1964-1974. One of the stated goals of the IHD was to promote research into groundwater situations for which the state of knowledge was hopelessly inadequate. One of these problem areas was the hydrology of carbonate terrains. Position papers published early in the IHD emphasized the special problems of karst; carbonate terrains were supposed to receive a substantial amount of attention during the IHD. There were indeed many new contributions from European colleagues but, unfortunately, in the United States the good intentions were not backed up by much in the way of federal funding. Some good and interesting work was published, particularly by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), but in the academic community the subject languished. About this same time the Cave Research Foundation (CRF), organized in 1957 to promote the systematic exploration, survey, and scientific study of the great cave systems of Mammoth Cave National Park, was casting about for a broader scope for its research activities. Up until that time, CRF research had been largely restricted to detailed mineralogical and geological investigations within the caves, with the main part of the effort concentrated on exploration and survey. The decision to investigate the hydrology required a certain enlargement of vision because investigators then had to consider the entire karst drainage basin rather than isolated fragments of cave passage.
This thesis tackles fundamental questions concerning the discharge of a pre-Pyrenean karst aquifer system and an Antarctic glacier system, utilizing a system engineering methodology and data-driven approach. It presents for the first time a simplified and effective linear transfer function for karst aquifers. The author provides detailed wavelet spectrum results, which reveal certain non-linearities in drought periods. In addition, structures based on Hammerstein-Wiener blocks have yielded a nonlinear model that is substantially more efficient than its linear counterparts. Another pioneering finding is the use of wavelet coherence between glacier discharge and air temperature to estimate SEC (Seasonal Effective Core) boundaries. The yearly SEC is essential to obtaining a model based on Hammerstein-Wiener structures, which offers considerably higher efficiency. Moreover, two different types of glacier dynamics have been discovered (over damped and overshoot), depending on the annual cycle and the SEC average temperature.
A complete guide to the management and restoration of water in karst environments Written by the co-chair of the Karst Commission of the International Association of Hydrogeologists, this book addresses the unique challenges related to the characterization, management, and protection of karst aquifers, which are present on all continents and numerous oceanic islands. Water in Karst describes karst hydrogeology and hydrology, surface water–groundwater interactions, site investigation, data collection, delineation of drainage areas, groundwater extraction, regulatory issues, and water vulnerability and restoration. Predictive modeling methods and solutions to resource contamination and overexploitation are included. Photos, diagrams, and an eight-page color insert illustrate the concepts presented in this practical, comprehensive reference. WATER IN KARST COVERS: Karst aquifers Flow measurements and analysis Drainage areas in karst General principles of water management Regulations and education Predictive models Floods, droughts, and climate change Groundwater extraction Engineering regulation of karst aquifers and springs Vulnerability of water in karst Restoration of water in karst
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