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A close relationship exists between GIS and numerous applications, including cartography, photogrammetry, geodesy, surveying, computer and information science, and statistics, among others. Scientists coined the term "geographic information science (GIScience)" to describe the theory behind these fields. A Research Agenda for Geographic Information
Comprehensive and authoritative baseline geospatial data content is crucial to the nation and to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The USGS founded its Center of Excellence for Geospatial Information Science (CEGIS) in 2006 to develop and distribute national geospatial data assets in a fast-moving information technology environment. In order to fulfill this mission, the USGS asked the National Research Council to assess current GIScience capabilities at the USGS, identify current and future needs for GIScience capabilities, recommend strategies for strengthening these capabilities and for collaborating with others to maximize research productivity, and make recommendations regarding the most effective research areas for CEGIS to pursue. With an initial focus on improving the capabilities of The National Map, the report recommends three priority research areas for CEGIS: information access and dissemination, data integration, and data models, and further identifies research topics within these areas that CEGIS should pursue. To address these research topics, CEGIS needs a sustainable research management process that involves a portfolio of collaborative research that balances short and long term goals.
As the use of geographical information systems develops apace, a significant strand of research activity is being directed to the fundamental nature of geographic information. This volume contains a collection of essays and discussions on this theme. What is geographic information? What fundamental principles are associated with it? How can
"The Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science provides an outstanding resource in 33 published volumes with 2 helpful indexes. This thorough reference set--written by 1300 eminent, international experts--offers librarians, information/computer scientists, bibliographers, documentalists, systems analysts, and students, convenient access to the techniques and tools of both library and information science. Impeccably researched, cross referenced, alphabetized by subject, and generously illustrated, the Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science integrates the essential theoretical and practical information accumulating in this rapidly growing field."
CD-ROM contains: Examples and code from text.
The Encyclopedia of Geographic Information Science covers the essence of this exciting, new, and expanding field in an easily understood but richly detailed style. In addition to contributions from some of the best recognized scholars in GIScience, this volume contains contributions from experts in GIS' supporting disciplines who explore how their disciplinary perspectives are expanded within the context of GIScience—what changes when consideration of location is added, what complexities in analytical procedures are added when we consider objects in 2, 3 or even 4 dimensions, what can we gain by visualizing our analytical results on a map or 3D display?
In August 1989, a Summer Institute was held at the Academie van Bouwkunst, the seventeenth century home of Amsterdam's School of Architecture, Town Planning and Landscape. The meeting brought together experts in Geographical Information Systems from throughout the world to address an international audience of planners. The contents of this book reflect many of the themes that were presented and discussed at the conference. The Summer Institute, let alone this volume, would not have been possible without the support of the International Association for the Development and Management of Existing and New Towns (INTNAIVN), the International Society of City and Regional Planners (ISoCaRP), The National Physical Planning Agency of the Netherlands (RPD) and the Berlage Studio. We wish to acknowledge the assistance provided by these organisations and by the various sponsors: The Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment, the Municipality of Amsterdam, Logisterion b.v., ESRI, UNISYS, MABON b.v., SPSS, PRIME Computer Inc., PANDATA. The provision of hardware facilities by the various computer companies allowed immensely valuable 'hands on' experience to be gained by all the participants.
WorldMinds provides broad exposure to a geography that is engaged with discovery, interpretation, and problem solving. Its 100 succinct chapters demonstrate the theories, methods, and data used by geographers, and exemplify the conceptual and topical richness of contemporary geography. The 150 contributing authors and co-authors address the challenges posed by issues such as globalization, regional and ethnic conflict, environmental hazards, terrorism, poverty, and sustainable development. This volume demonstrates the utility of geography as a conceptual discipline that contributes theoretically; as an applied practice that informs policy-making; and as a coherent set of methodologies to gather and analyze data about Earth and its occupants. WorldMinds is the ideal general reader to supplement textbooks in the full range of academic geography courses. In addition to geography students and instructors, it is relevant to researchers, applied geographers and policy makers.
The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) provides geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) to support national security, both as a national intelligence and a combat support agency. In the post-9/11 world, the need for faster and more accurate geospatial intelligence is increasing. GEOINT uses imagery and geospatial data and information to provide knowledge for planning, decisions, and action. For example, data from satellites, pilotless aircraft and ground sensors are integrated with maps and other intelligence data to provide location information on a potential target. This report defines 12 hard problems in geospatial science that NGA must resolve in order to evolve their capabilities to meet future needs. Many of the hard research problems are related to integration of data collected from an ever-growing variety of sensors and non-spatial data sources, and analysis of spatial data collected during a sequence of time (spatio-temporal data). The report also suggests promising approaches in geospatial science and related disciplines for meeting these challenges. The results of this study are intended to help NGA prioritize geospatial science research directions.
"This book provides a useful reference to the latest advancements in the area of educational technology and e-learning"--Provided by publisher.
Geographic information systems (GIS), the Global Positioning System (GPS), remote sensing, and other information technologies have all changed the nature of work in the mapping sciences and in the professions, industries, and institutions that depend on them for basic research and education. Today, geographic information systems have become central to the ways thousands of government agencies, private companies, and not-for-profit organizations do business. However, the supply of GIS/GIScience professionals has not kept pace with the demand generated by growing needs for more and improved geographic information systems and for more robust geographic data. Beyond Mapping assesses the state of mapping sciences at the beginning of the twenty-first century and identifies the critical national needs for GIS/GIScience professionals. It examines the forces that drive and accompany the need for GIS/GIScience professionals, including technological change, demand for geographic information, and changes in organizations. It assesses education and research needs, including essential training and education, new curriculum challenges and responses, quality assurance in education and training, and organizational challenges. Some of the report's recommendations include more collaboration among academic disciplines, private companies, and government agencies; the implementation of GIS/GIScience at all levels of education; and the development of a coherent, comprehensive research agenda for the mapping sciences.
Geographic Information Research is a broad discipline, and is being actively pursued world-wide. A group of researchers in both North America and Europe have come together as contributors to this volume as a way of combining their expertise. The emphasis is on matters of political, strategic and organizational importance, rather than on technology or systems, and covers the theory and social and political practice which goes hand-in-hand with GIS.
This volume celebrates the 100th anniversary of the Association of American Geographers. It recognizes the importance of technologies in the production of geographical knowledge. The original chapters presented here examine technologies that have affected geography as a discipline. Among the technologies discussed are cartography, the camera, aerial photography, computers, and other computer-related tools. The contributors address the impact of such technologies on geography and society, disciplinary inquiries into the social/technological interfaces, high-tech as well low-tech societies, and applications of technologies to the public and private sectors. Geography and Technology can be used as a textbook in geography courses and seminars investigating specific technologies and the impacts of technologies on society and policy. It will also be useful for those in the humanities, social, policy and engineering sciences, planning and development fields where technology questions are becoming of increased importance. Geography clearly has much to learn from other disciplines and fields about geography/technology linkages; others can likewise learn much from us.
A significant part of understanding how people use geographic information and technology concerns human cognition. This book provides the first comprehensive in-depth examination of the cognitive aspects of human-computer interaction for geographic information systems (GIS). Cognitive aspects are treated in relation to individual, group, behavioral, institutional, and cultural perspectives. Extensions of GIS in the form of spatial decision support systems and SDSS for groups are part of the geographic information technology considered. Audience: Geographic information users, systems analysts and system designers, researchers in human-computer interaction will find this book an information resource for understanding cognitive aspects of geographic information technology use, and the methods appropriate for examining this use.
Most environmental studies are based upon data collected at fine spatial scales plots, sediments, cores, etc.. Furthermore, temporal scales of these studies have been relatively short days, weeks, months and few studies have exceeded three years duration the typical funding cycle.; Despite this history, environmental scientists are now being called upon to extrapolate findings from "plot-level" studies to broader spatial scales and from short-term studies to longer temporal scales, up to decades for questions related to long-term processes such as global warming and the rise in sea level.; The complex questions being addressed internationally require that scientists take advantage of new technologies including remote sensing, geographic information systems GIS, and powerful climatic and environmental simulation models. As more environmental scientists begin to work at these broader spatial and temporal scales, and to utilize many of the newer technologies, they are recognising a whole new class of problems.; This book aims to address the most pertinent issues, and includes a comprehensive review of selected topics, case studies, and theoretical discussions, divided into seven sections each preceded by a brief introduction.
"This book discusses the complete range of contemporary research topics such as computer modeling, geometry, geoprocessing, and geographic information systems"--Provided by publisher.

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