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Takes a closer look at acids and bases and how they play key roles in our lives.
This volume summarises and reviews the enormous progress made over the past two decades in solid acids and bases, with emphasis on fundamental aspects and chemical principles. In recent years many new kinds of solid acids and bases have been found and synthesized. The surface properties (in particular, acidic and basic properties) and the structures of the new solids have been clarified by newly developed measurement methods using modern instruments and techniques. The characterized solid acids and bases have been applied as catalysts for diversified reactions, many good correlations being obtained between the acid-base properties and the catalytic activities or selectivities. Recently, acid-base bifunctional catalysis on solid surfaces is becoming a more and more important and intriguing field of study. It has been recognized that the acidic and basic properties of catalysts and catalyst supports play an important role in oxidation, reduction, hydrogenation, hydrocracking, etc. The effect of the preparation method and the pretreatment conditions of solid acids and bases on the acidic and basic properties, the nature of acidic and basic sites and the mechanism regarding the generation of acidity and basicity have been elucidated experimentally and theoretically. On the basis of the accumulated knowledge of solid acids and bases, it is now possible to design and develop highly active and selective solid acid and base catalysts for particular reactions. The chemistry of solid acids and bases is now being related to and utilized in numerous areas including adsorbents, sensors, cosmetics, fuel cells, sensitized pressed papers, and others. The information presented in this book will therefore be of interest to a wide-ranging readership.
Acids and bases are ubiquitous in chemistry. Our understanding of them, however, is dominated by their behaviour in water. Transfer to non-aqueous solvents leads to profound changes in acid-base strengths and to the rates and equilibria of many processes: for example, synthetic reactions involving acids, bases and nucleophiles; isolation of pharmaceutical actives through salt formation; formation of zwitter- ions in amino acids; and chromatographic separation of substrates. This book seeks to enhance our understanding of acids and bases by reviewing and analysing their behaviour in non-aqueous solvents. The behaviour is related where possible to that in water, but correlations and contrasts between solvents are also presented. Fundamental background material is provided in the initial chapters: quantitative aspects of acid-base equilibria, including definitions and relationships between solution pH and species distribution; the influence of molecular structure on acid strengths; and acidity in aqueous solution. Solvent properties are reviewed, along with the magnitude of the interaction energies of solvent molecules with (especially) ions; the ability of solvents to participate in hydrogen bonding and to accept or donate electron pairs is seen to be crucial. Experimental methods for determining dissociation constants are described in detail. In the remaining chapters, dissociation constants of a wide range of acids in three distinct classes of solvents are discussed: protic solvents, such as alcohols, which are strong hydrogen-bond donors; basic, polar aprotic solvents, such as dimethylformamide; and low-basicity and low polarity solvents, such as acetonitrile and tetrahydrofuran. Dissociation constants of individual acids vary over more than 20 orders of magnitude among the solvents, and there is a strong differentiation between the response of neutral and charged acids to solvent change. Ion-pairing and hydrogen-bonding equilibria, such as between phenol and phenoxide ions, play an increasingly important role as the solvent polarity decreases, and their influence on acid-base equilibria and salt formation is described.
An introduction to acids and bases.
Solid Acids and Bases: Their Catalytic Properties reviews developments in the studies of acidic and basic properties of solids, including the efficacy and special characteristics of solid acid and base catalysts. This book discusses the determination of basic and acidic properties on solid surfaces and relationship between acid strength and acid amount. The structure and acid-base properties of mixed metal oxides and correlation between acid-base properties and catalytic activity and selectivity are also deliberated. This publication is useful to professional chemists and graduate students in the fields of organic, inorganic and physical chemistry, petroleum chemistry and catalysis, including readers interested in the acidic and basic properties on solid surfaces.
Because of the great importance of acid catalysis in the petrochemical industry, extensive research has been carried out during the last 30 years concerning the fundamental and applied aspects of catalysis by acids. In contrast, base-catalyzed reactions have received little attention in heterogeneous catalysis. The aim of this symposium was to evaluate our knowledge of the important area of acid and base catalysis and to cover a broad range of solids, zeolite chemistry being only one aspect of heterogeneous catalysis.
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Hard and Soft Acids and Bases Principle in Organic Chemistry deals with various phenomena in organic chemistry that are directly related to or derived from the hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB) principle. Topics covered range from chemical reactivity to displacement reactions, along with various HSAB principle applications. This text consists of 11 chapters and begins with a historical overview of the HSAB concept, followed by a classification of hard and soft acids and bases and their theoretical descriptions. The reader is methodically introduced to the stability of organic compounds and complexes; displacement reactions of HSAB; and the chemistry of alkenes, aromatic, and heterocyclic compounds. The reactivity of organophosphorus and carbonyl compounds; organosulfur compounds and other chalcogenides; and organoboranes is also considered. The book concludes with an evaluation of other applications of the HSAB principle, paying particular attention to solubility and protonation; carbenes and nitrenes; the organic chemistry of group IV elements; and the reactions of organohalides, Grignard, and related agents. This book is intended for senior undergraduates or graduate chemistry majors, as well as organic chemists who are not familiar with the HSAB concept.
Ionisation Constants of Inorganic Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution, Second Edition provides a compilation of tables that summarize relevant data recorded in the literature up to the end of 1980 for the ionization constants of inorganic acids and bases in aqueous solution. This book includes references to acidity functions for strong acids and bases, as well as details about the formation of polynuclear species. This text then explains the details of each column of the tables, wherein column 1 gives the name of the substance and the negative logarithm of the ionization constant and column 2 gives the temperature of measurements in degree Celsius. This book presents as well the method of measurement and the literature references that are listed alphabetically at the end of the tables. Chemists will find this book useful.
Introduces some of the acids and bases in nature and everyday life, describes their properties and how they react, and suggests related activities.
"Acids, Bases and Salts Quiz Questions and Answers" book is a part of the series "What is High School Chemistry & Problems Book" and this series includes a complete book 1 with all chapters, and with each main chapter from grade 10 high school chemistry course. "Acids, Bases and Salts Quiz Questions and Answers" pdf includes multiple choice questions and answers (MCQs) for 10th-grade competitive exams. It helps students for a quick study review with quizzes for conceptual based exams. "Acids, Bases and Salts Questions and Answers" pdf provides problems and solutions for class 10 competitive exams. It helps students to attempt objective type questions and compare answers with the answer key for assessment. This helps students with e-learning for online degree courses and certification exam preparation. The chapter "Acids, Bases and Salts Quiz" provides quiz questions on topics: What is acid, base and salt, acids and bases, pH measurements, self-ionization of water pH scale, Bronsted concept of acids and bases, pH scale, and salts. The list of books in High School Chemistry Series for 10th-grade students is as: - Grade 10 Chemistry Multiple Choice Questions and Answers (MCQs) (Book 1) - Organic Chemistry Quiz Questions and Answers (Book 2) - Biochemistry Quiz Questions and Answers (Book 3) - Environmental Chemistry Quiz Questions and Answers (Book 4) - Acids, Bases and Salts Quiz Questions and Answers (Book 5) - Hydrocarbons Quiz Questions and Answers (Book 6) "Acids, Bases and Salts Quiz Questions and Answers" provides students a complete resource to learn acids, bases and salts definition, acids, bases and salts course terms, theoretical and conceptual problems with the answer key at end of book.
This book covers the basic concepts found in introductory high-school and college chemistry courses.
The activities in this book explain elementary concepts in the study of chemistry, including acids, bases, solvents, solutions, crystals, and more! General background information, suggested activities, questions for discussion, and answers are included.
SCIENCE IS A GREAT AREA TO TEACH, BECAUSE CHILDREN HAVE A NATURAL CURIOSITY ABOUT THE WORLD. THEY WANT TO KNOW WHY AND HOW THINGS WORK, WHAT THINGS ARE MADE OF, AND WHERE THEY CAME FROM.
countries accelerating to reach a consensus on the role that atmospheric emissions and acidic precipitation play in the environment, publication of this series is timely. The editors thank the contributors to this volume for their efforts in describing a wide array of atmospheric topics, all of which are important to an understanding of the acidic precipitation issue. Oak Ridge, Tennessee Steven E Lindberg Riverside, California Albert L. Page Orono, Maine Stephen A. Norton Contents Series Preface .................................................... v Preface... ....... ...... ..... ... .. ............................... .. vii Contributors ..................................................... xiii Sources of Acids, Bases, and Their Precursors in the Atmosphere . . . 1 Roger L. Tanner I. Introduction and Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 II. Sources of Acids ............................................... 3 III. Sources of Acid-Neutralizing Substances (Bases) ................... 9 IV. Distribution of Atmospheric Acids and Bases ...................... 10 V. Gas-Aerosol Equilibria and Boundary Layer Mixing ................ 14 VI. Summary of Significant Acid-Formation Pathways.............. . .. . 15 References ................................•................... 17 Aerosol Sulfur Association with Aluminum in Eastern North America: Evidence for Solubilization of Atmospheric Trace Metals before Deposition ......... . . . . . . . . . . 21 . . .
Engineers who need to have a better understanding of chemistry will benefit from this accessible book. It places a stronger emphasis on outcomes assessment, which is the driving force for many of the new features. Each section focuses on the development and assessment of one or two specific objectives. Within each section, a specific objective is included, an anticipatory set to orient the reader, content discussion from established authors, and guided practice problems for relevant objectives. These features are followed by a set of independent practice problems. The expanded Making it Real feature showcases topics of current interest relating to the subject at hand such as chemical forensics and more medical related topics. Numerous worked examples in the text now include Analysis and Synthesis sections, which allow engineers to explore concepts in greater depth, and discuss outside relevance.
The two-part, fifth edition of Advanced Organic Chemistry has been substantially revised and reorganized for greater clarity. The material has been updated to reflect advances in the field since the previous edition, especially in computational chemistry. Part A covers fundamental structural topics and basic mechanistic types. It can stand-alone; together, with Part B: Reaction and Synthesis, the two volumes provide a comprehensive foundation for the study in organic chemistry. Companion websites provide digital models for study of structure, reaction and selectivity for students and exercise solutions for instructors.

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