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This book is intended to survey the most important computer algorithms in use today, and to teach fundamental techniques to the growing number of people in need of knowing them. It is intended for use as a textbook for a second course in computer science, after students have acquired basic programming skills and familiarity with computer systems. The book also may be useful for self-study or as a reference for people engaged in the development of computer systems or applications programs, since it contains implementations of useful algorithms and detailed information on performance characteristics and clients. The broad perspective taken makes the book an appropriate introduction to the field. the study of algorithms and data structures is fundamental to any computerscience curriculum, but it is not just for programmers and computer-science students. Everyone who uses a computer wants it to run faster or to solve larger problems. The algorithms in this book represent a body of knowledge developed over the last 50 years that has become indispensable. From N-body simulation problems in physics to genetic-sequencing problems in molecular biology, the basic methods described here have become essential in scientific research; from architectural modeling systems to aircraft simulation, they have become essential tools in engineering; and from database systems to internet search engines, they have become essential parts of modern software systems. And these are but a few examples—as the scope of computer applications continues to grow, so grows the impact of the basic methods covered here. Before developing our fundamental approach to studying algorithms, we develop data types for stacks, queues, and other low-level abstractions that we use throughout the book. Then we survey fundamental algorithms for sorting, searching, graphs, and strings. The last chapter is an overview placing the rest of the material in the book in a larger context. PREFACE www.it-ebooks.info ix Distinctive features The orientation of the book is to study algorithms likely to be of practical use. The book teaches a broad variety of algorithms and data structures and provides sufficient information about them that readers can confidently implement, debug, and put them to work in any computational environment. The approach involves: Algorithms. Our descriptions of algorithms are based on complete implementations and on a discussion of the operations of these programs on a consistent set of examples. Instead of presenting pseudo-code, we work with real code, so that the programs can quickly be put to practical use. Our programs are written in Java, but in a style such that most of our code can be reused to develop implementations in other modern programming languages. Data types. We use a modern programming style based on data abstraction, so that algorithms and their data structures are encapsulated together. Applications. Each chapter has a detailed description of applications where the algorithms described play a critical role. These range from applications in physics and molecular biology, to engineering computers and systems, to familiar tasks such as data compression and searching on the web. A scientific approach. We emphasize developing mathematical models for describing the performance of algorithms, using the models to develop hypotheses about performance, and then testing the hypotheses by running the algorithms in realistic contexts. Breadth of coverage. We cover basic abstract data types, sorting algorithms, searching algorithms, graph processing, and string processing. We keep the material in algorithmic context, describing data structures, algorithm design paradigms, reduction, and problem-solving models. We cover classic methods that have been taught since the 1960s and new methods that have been invented in recent years. Our primary goal is to introduce the most important algorithms in use today to as wide an audience as possible. These algorithms are generally ingenious creations that, remarkably, can each be expressed in just a dozen or two lines of code. As a group, they represent problemsolving power of amazing scope. They have enabled the construction of computational artifacts, the solution of scientific problems, and the development of commercial applications that would not have been feasible without them. www.it-ebooks.info x Booksite An important feature of the book is its relationship to the booksite algs4.cs.princeton.edu. This site is freely available and contains an extensive amount of material about algorithms and data structures, for teachers, students, and practitioners, including: An online synopsis. The text is summarized in the booksite to give it the same overall structure as the book, but linked so as to provide easy navigation through the material. Full implementations. All code in the book is available on the booksite, in a form suitable for program development. Many other implementations are also available, including advanced implementations and improvements described in the book, answers to selected exercises, and client code for various applications. The emphasis is on testing algorithms in the context of meaningful applications. Exercises and answers. The booksite expands on the exercises in the book by adding drill exercises (with answers available with a click), a wide variety of examples illustrating the reach of the material, programming exercises with code solutions, and challenging problems. Dynamic visualizations. Dynamic simulations are impossible in a printed book, but the website is replete with implementations that use a graphics class to present compelling visual demonstrations of algorithm applications. Course materials. A complete set of lecture slides is tied directly to the material in the book and on the booksite. A full selection of programming assignments, with check lists, test data, and preparatory material, is also included. Links to related material. Hundreds of links lead students to background information about applications and to resources for studying algorithms. Our goal in creating this material was to provide a complementary approach to the ideas. Generally, you should read the book when learning specific algorithms for the first time or when trying to get a global picture, and you should use the booksite as a reference when programming or as a starting point when searching for more detail while online. www.it-ebooks.info xi Use in the curriculum The book is intended as a textbook in a second course in computer science. It provides full coverage of core material and is an excellent vehicle for students to gain experience and maturity in programming, quantitative reasoning, and problemsolving. Typically, one course in computer science will suffice as a prerequisite—the book is intended for anyone conversant with a modern programming language and with the basic features of modern computer systems. The algorithms and data structures are expressed in Java, but in a style accessible to people fluent in other modern languages. We embrace modern Java abstractions (including generics) but resist dependence upon esoteric features of the language. Most of the mathematical material supporting the analytic results is self-contained (or is labeled as beyond the scope of this book), so little specific preparation in mathematics is required for the bulk of the book, although mathematical maturity is definitely helpful. Applications are drawn from introductory material in the sciences, again self-contained. The material covered is a fundamental background for any student intending to major in computer science, electrical engineering, or operations research, and is valuable for any student with interests in science, mathematics, or engineering. Context The book is intended to follow our introductory text, An Introduction to Programming in Java: An Interdisciplinary Approach, which is a broad introduction to the field. Together, these two books can support a two- or three-semester introduction to computer science that will give any student the requisite background to successfully address computation in any chosen field of study in science, engineering, or the social sciences. The starting point for much of the material in the book was the Sedgewick series of Algorithms books. In spirit, this book is closest to the first and second editions of that book, but this text benefits from decades of experience teaching and learning that material. Sedgewick’s current Algorithms in C/C++/Java, Third Edition is more appropriate as a reference or a text for an advanced course; this book is specifically designed to be a textbook for a one-semester course for first- or second-year college students and as a modern introduction to the basics and a reference for use by working programmers. www.it-ebooks.info xii Acknowledgments This book has been nearly 40 years in the making, so full recognition of all the people who have made it possible is simply not feasible. Earlier editions of this book list dozens of names, including (in alphabetical order) Andrew Appel, Trina Avery, Marc Brown, Lyn Dupré, Philippe Flajolet, Tom Freeman, Dave Hanson, Janet Incerpi, Mike Schidlowsky, Steve Summit, and Chris Van Wyk. All of these people deserve acknowledgement, even though some of their contributions may have happened decades ago. For this fourth edition, we are grateful to the hundreds of students at Princeton and several other institutions who have suffered through preliminary versions of the work, and to readers around the world for sending in comments and corrections through the booksite. We are grateful for the support of Princeton University in its unwavering commitment to excellence in teaching and learning, which has provided the basis for the development of this work. Peter Gordon has provided wise counsel throughout the evolution of this work almost from the beginning, including a gentle introduction of the “back to the basics” idea that is the foundation of this edition. For this fourth edition, we are grateful to Barbara Wood for her careful and professional copyediting, to Julie Nahil for managing the production, and to many others at Pearson for their roles in producing and marketing the book. All were extremely responsive to the demands of a rather tight schedule without the slightest sacrifice to the quality of the result. Robert Sedgewick Kevin Wayne Princeton, NJ January, 2011
Despite growing interest, basic information on methods and models for mathematically analyzing algorithms has rarely been directly accessible to practitioners, researchers, or students. An Introduction to the Analysis of Algorithms, Second Edition, organizes and presents that knowledge, fully introducing primary techniques and results in the field. Robert Sedgewick and the late Philippe Flajolet have drawn from both classical mathematics and computer science, integrating discrete mathematics, elementary real analysis, combinatorics, algorithms, and data structures. They emphasize the mathematics needed to support scientific studies that can serve as the basis for predicting algorithm performance and for comparing different algorithms on the basis of performance. Techniques covered in the first half of the book include recurrences, generating functions, asymptotics, and analytic combinatorics. Structures studied in the second half of the book include permutations, trees, strings, tries, and mappings. Numerous examples are included throughout to illustrate applications to the analysis of algorithms that are playing a critical role in the evolution of our modern computational infrastructure. Improvements and additions in this new edition include Upgraded figures and code An all-new chapter introducing analytic combinatorics Simplified derivations via analytic combinatorics throughout The book’s thorough, self-contained coverage will help readers appreciate the field’s challenges, prepare them for advanced results—covered in their monograph Analytic Combinatorics and in Donald Knuth’s The Art of Computer Programming books—and provide the background they need to keep abreast of new research. "[Sedgewick and Flajolet] are not only worldwide leaders of the field, they also are masters of exposition. I am sure that every serious computer scientist will find this book rewarding in many ways." —From the Foreword by Donald E. Knuth
Part of the new Digital Filmmaker Series! Digital Filmmaking: An Introductionis the first book in the newDigital Filmmaker Series. Designed for an introductory level course in digital filmmaking, it is intended for anyone who has an interest in telling stories with pictures and sound and won't assume any familiarity with equipment or concepts on the part of the student. In addition to the basics of shooting and editing, different story forms are introduced from documentary and live events through fictional narratives. Each of the topics is covered in enough depth to allow anyone with a camera and a computer to begin creating visual projects of quality.
This book is published open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. It covers aspects of unsupervised machine learning used for knowledge discovery in data science and introduces a data-driven approach to cluster analysis, the Databionic swarm (DBS). DBS consists of the 3D landscape visualization and clustering of data. The 3D landscape enables 3D printing of high-dimensional data structures. The clustering and number of clusters or an absence of cluster structure are verified by the 3D landscape at a glance. DBS is the first swarm-based technique that shows emergent properties while exploiting concepts of swarm intelligence, self-organization and the Nash equilibrium concept from game theory. It results in the elimination of a global objective function and the setting of parameters. By downloading the R package DBS can be applied to data drawn from diverse research fields and used even by non-professionals in the field of data mining.
240+ Real Java Interview Questions on Core Java, Threads and Concurrency, Algorithms, Data Structures, Design Patterns, Spring, Hibernate, Puzzles & Sample Interview Questions for Investment Banks, HealthCare IT, Startups, Product and Service based companies. This book is ideal if you are preparing for Java Job Interview in Indian Market.Topics Covered in eBook Core Java (Collections, Concurrency & multi-threading, Lambda, Stream & Generics) Hibernate & Spring Problems Object Oriented Design Problems. Data structure and Algorithm problems This book tries to fill in the knowledge gaps for Java developers appearing for interviews in investment banking domain (RBS, BlackRock, UBS, Morgan Stanley, CitiGroup, Credit Suisse, Barclays Capital, Goldman, J.P. Morgan, Bank of America & Nomura, HSBC), product company (Oracle, Adobe, Markit), or service sector companies (Wipro, Infosys, HCL, Sapient, TCS). This book contains collection of Java related questions which are considered important for the interview preparation. A fair try has been given to address the Question, otherwise references has been provided for in depth study.
Besides scheduling problems for single and parallel machines and shop scheduling problems the book covers advanced models involving due-dates, sequence dependent changeover times and batching. Also multiprocessor task scheduling and problems with multipurpose machines are discussed. The method used to solve these problems are linear programming, dynamic programming, branch-and-bound algorithms, and local search heuristics. Complexity results for the different classes of deterministic scheduling problems are updated and summarized. Also the references are updated.
The only book to provide a unified view of the interplay betweencomputational number theory and cryptography Computational number theory and modern cryptography are two ofthe most important and fundamental research fields in informationsecurity. In this book, Song Y. Yang combines knowledge of thesetwo critical fields, providing a unified view of the relationshipsbetween computational number theory and cryptography. The authortakes an innovative approach, presenting mathematical ideas first,thereupon treating cryptography as an immediate application of themathematical concepts. The book also presents topics from numbertheory, which are relevant for applications in public-keycryptography, as well as modern topics, such as coding and latticebased cryptography for post-quantum cryptography. The authorfurther covers the current research and applications for commoncryptographic algorithms, describing the mathematical problemsbehind these applications in a manner accessible to computerscientists and engineers. Makes mathematical problems accessible to computer scientistsand engineers by showing their immediate application Presents topics from number theory relevant for public-keycryptography applications Covers modern topics such as coding and lattice basedcryptography for post-quantum cryptography Starts with the basics, then goes into applications and areasof active research Geared at a global audience; classroom tested in North America,Europe, and Asia Incudes exercises in every chapter Instructor resources available on the book’s CompanionWebsite Computational Number Theory and Modern Cryptography isideal for graduate and advanced undergraduate students incomputer science, communications engineering, cryptography andmathematics. Computer scientists, practicing cryptographers, andother professionals involved in various security schemes will alsofind this book to be a helpful reference.

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