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This text provides a background view of the object approach, related geometric aspects, the different level of data modelling and the role of geo-information theory. The rest of the book builds upon these concepts describing the applicability of broader aspects such as topology, thematic object classes and class hierarchies, object aggregation and generalization and uncertainty.
Theoretical and Applied Solutions in Multi Scale Mapping Users have come to expect instant access to up-to-date geographical information, with global coverage--presented at widely varying levels of detail, as digital and paper products; customisable data that can readily combined with other geographic information. These requirements present an immense challenge to those supporting the delivery of such services (National Mapping Agencies (NMA), Government Departments, and private business. Generalisation of Geographic Information: Cartographic Modelling and Applications provides detailed review of state of the art technologies associated with these challenges, including the most recent developments in cartometric analysis techniques able to support high levels of automation among multi scale derivation techniques. The book illustrates the application of these ideas within existing and emerging technologies. In addition to providing a comprehensive theoretical underpinning, the book demonstrates how theoretical developments have translated into commercial systems deployed within NMAs. The book explores relevance of open systems in support of collaborative research and open source web based map services. State of the art review on multi scale representation techniques Detailed consideration of database requirements and object modeling in support of emerging applications (3D, mobile) and innovative delivery (map generalisation services) Illustration through existing map production environment implementations Consolidated bibliography (680 entries), 200 illustrations, author and subject index
The book deals with the integration of temporal information in Geographic Information Systems. The main purpose of an historical or time-integrative GIS is to reproduce spatio- temporal processes or sequents of events in the real world in the form of a model. The model thus making them accessible for spatial query, analysis and visualization. This volume reflects both theoretical thoughts on the interrelations of space and time, as well as practical examples taken from various fields of application (e.g. business data warehousing, demographics, history and spatial analysis).
Spatial dimensions need to be properly captured if modelling and engineering techniques are to be successfully applied in addressing environmental problems. The links between the geographical information systems (GIS) that capture this data, simulation modelling, and engineering offer tremendous possibilities for building versatile support systems for managing the environment. GIS, Environmental Modelling and Engineering focuses on using GIS and external models to solve real environmental problems, promoting the critical thinking needed for the effective applications of these systems and their analytical outputs. Divided into three major sections, this textbook first concentrates on defining GIS, identifying how data is structured, and explaining common functionality. The text examines GIS from a technological perspective, exploring the evolution of its scientific basis and its synergies with other technologies within a geocomputational paradigm. The next section explores modelling from a neutral scientific perspective in its role of simulating phenomena, as well as from a more specific perspective in its role within environmental science and engineering. The third and largest section looks at how GIS and simulation modelling are joined. It provides case studies and covers issues such as interoperability, data quality, model validity, space-time dynamics, and decision-support systems. This volume provides seniors and postgraduate students with a structured, coherent text that goes beyond introductory subject matter by enabling readers to think critically about the data acquisition process and the results they get from the technology.
This text is the inaugural book in Taylor and Francis's GISDATA series, and is derived from the specialist workshop convened under the auspices of the European Science Foundation's GISDATA Scientific Programme. Generalisation is an integrating tool for the analysis and presentation of spatial data. Effective spatial data analysis requires multiple views of the world at various scales with different thematic layers of representation. Generalisation is a key mechanism in this process, as it filters out information which is required for particular scales or layers; hence it is critical to implement full and comprehensive generalisation capabilities in a GIS, something with which few current GIS are equipped.; This book overviews the core and as-yet unresolved issues surrounding the achievement of this goal, and presents various alternatives - both speculative views and practical examples - in the areas of automated generalisation, vis-a-vis problems such as object simplification and placement. At the same time it distinguishes between modelling with generalisation and graphical representation, and adopts a model-building perspective. It also describes artificial intelligence techniques for implementing automated generalised routines, and addresses issues of data quality and production.; The text is organized into six parts: an introduction; generic issue; object-orientated methods and knowledge-based modelling; knowledge acquisition and representation; data quality; and operation and implementation.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is the organized activity by which people: measure aspects of geographic phenomena and processes; represent these measurements, usually in the form of a computer database, to emphasize spatial themes, entities, and relationships; operate upon these representations to produce more measurements, and to discover new relationships by integrating disparate sources; and, transform these representations to conform to other frameworks of entities and relationships. These activities reflect the larger context, such as institutions and cultures, in which these people carry out their work. In turn, the GIS may influence these structures. This text provides the comprehensive coverage you will need to master this powerful new technology.
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Spatial Analysis: Modelling in a GIS Environment Edited by PaulLongley and Michael Batty Digital data and information are usedincreasingly by academics, professionals, local authorities, andgovernment departments. Powerful new technologies, such asgeographic information systems (GIS), are being developed toanalyse such data, and GIS technologies are rapidly becoming partof the emergent world digital infrastructure. This book shows howcomputer methods of analysis and modelling, built around GIS, canbe used to identify ways in which our cities and regions might bebetter planned and understood. The contributors to this book areall actively involved in research using geographic informationsystems. This book will be valuable reading for: * Geographers, researchers, and regional analysts * Population theorists and regional economists with interests inlarge-scale demographic and employment data * Planners and policy-makers who wish to use GIS to improve theirdecision making * Business analysts who wish to explore markets using the mostrecent advances in digital spatial data technology * All those interested in geodemographics Paul Longley is Professor of Geography at the Department ofGeography, University of Bristol, United Kingdom. Michael Batty isProfessor of Spatial Analysis and Planning at the UniversityCollege London. United Kingdom.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 1997 International Conference on Spatial Information Theory, COSIT'97, held in Laurel Highlands, Pennsylvania, USA, in October 1997. The 31 revised full papers presented were carefully selected from a total of 66 submissions. Also included are seven posters. The volume is divided into sections on representations of change, structuring of space, boundaries and gradations, topological models of space, formal models of space, cognitive aspects of spatial acquisition, novel use of spatial information, wayfinding and map interpretation, representations of spatial concepts, new approaches to spatial information.
This work is the first to describe techniques for the storage and manipulation of geographic data at multiple scales and in an integrated manner, thus avoiding the redundancies of other techniques. The book opens with a general introduction to Geographic Information Systems. It then goes on to give an overview of the known spatial access methods and presents several new structures: multi-object BSP-tree, KD2B-tree, sphere-tree, BLG-tree, reactive BSP-tree, and reactive-tree. The reactive BSP-tree and reactive-tree are geometric structures which take multiple levels of detail into account. They are reactive data structures which form the basis of a seamless, scaleless, geographic database. The work goes on to describe two advanced GIS architecture types: the geographic relational extension and the object-oriented (OO) approach. Actual implementations are presented as well as theoretical discussion of the systems. GEO++ is based on the open research DBMS Postgres and realizes the geographic relational extension. In the OO programming language, Procol, persistent objects are introduced in order to combine the powerful OO modelling with the database functionality required for GISs. An up-to-date reference for a rapidly developing field, the book will benefit all researchers and practitioners using or developing geographic information systems.
This book covers fundamental aspects of spatial data modelling specifically on the aspect of three-dimensional (3D) modelling and structuring. Realisation of "true" 3D GIS spatial system needs a lot of effort, and the process is taking place in various research centres and universities in some countries. The development of spatial data modelling for 3D objects is the focus of this book.
Journal of urban planning and design. Publishes research in the application of formal methods, methods models, and theories to spatial problems involving the built environment and the spatial structure of cities and regions. Includes the application of computers to planning and design, in particular the use of shape grammars, artificial intelligence, and morphological methods to buildings and towns, the use of multimedia and GIS in urban and regional planning, and the development of ideas concerning the virtual city.
Environmental Information Systems in Industry and Public Administration provides an overview of worldwide research and development on Environmental Information Systems (ENVIS). This book is the only topical documentation of the highly innovative approach of information systems for environmental protection. Issues are covered from the global and multinational level to industrial solutions for enterprises.

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