Download Free Background Knowledge Book in PDF and EPUB Free Download. You can read online Background Knowledge and write the review.

Provides information on how to use sustained silent reading and instruction in subject-specific vocabulary terms to attain academic achievement.
Social robots are embodied agents that perform knowledge-intensive tasks involving several kinds of information from different heterogeneous sources. This book, Engineering Background Knowledge for Social Robots, introduces a component-based architecture for supporting the knowledge-intensive tasks performed by social robots. The design was based on the requirements of a real socially-assistive robotic application, and all the components contribute to and benefit from the knowledge base which is its cornerstone. The knowledge base is structured by a set of interconnected and modularized ontologies which model the information, and is initially populated with linguistic, ontological and factual knowledge retrieved from Linked Open Data. Access to the knowledge base is guaranteed by Lizard, a tool providing software components, with an API for accessing facts stored in the knowledge base in a programmatic and object-oriented way. The author introduces two methods for engineering the knowledge needed by robots, a novel method for automatically integrating knowledge from heterogeneous sources with a frame-driven approach, and a novel empirical method for assessing foundational distinctions over Linked Open Data entities from a common-sense perspective. These effectively enable the evolution of the robot’s knowledge by automatically integrating information derived from heterogeneous sources and the generation of common-sense knowledge using Linked Open Data as an empirical basis. The feasibility and benefits of the architecture have been assessed through a prototype deployed in a real socially-assistive scenario, and the book presents two applications and the results of a qualitative and quantitative evaluation.
This important text/reference presents a comprehensive review of techniques for taxonomy matching, discussing matching algorithms, analyzing matching systems, and comparing matching evaluation approaches. Different methods are investigated in accordance with the criteria of the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI). The text also highlights promising developments and innovative guidelines, to further motivate researchers and practitioners in the field. Topics and features: discusses the fundamentals and the latest developments in taxonomy matching, including the related fields of ontology matching and schema matching; reviews next-generation matching strategies, matching algorithms, matching systems, and OAEI campaigns, as well as alternative evaluations; examines how the latest techniques make use of different sources of background knowledge to enable precise matching between repositories; describes the theoretical background, state-of-the-art research, and practical real-world applications; covers the fields of dynamic taxonomies, personalized directories, catalog segmentation, and recommender systems. This stimulating book is an essential reference for practitioners engaged in data science and business intelligence, and for researchers specializing in taxonomy matching and semantic similarity assessment. The work is also suitable as a supplementary text for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate courses on information and metadata management.
This is the second edition of an easily readable text that provides first-hand information on culturally and linguistically diverse students as well as instructional strategies in the content areas of reading, writing, science, social studies and maths, using simple and direct language. The second edition includes updated information on current educational programs and local and national standards for English language learners in United States. The book will be of interest to researchers, professionals, under- and postgraduate students interested in the teaching of ethnic minorities.
The proceedings contains the papers selected for the 4th International Conf- ence on Knowledge Science, Engineering and Management (KSEM). The c- lection of papers represent the wide range of research activities that have been carriedout,coveringknowledgerepresentationandreasoning,knowledgeextr- tion, knowledge integration, data mining and knowledge discovery, etc. Ad- tionally, two special sessions:“Theoryand Practiceof Ontologyfor the Semantic Web” and “Application of Data Mining to Seismic Data Analysis for Earthquake Study” have been included along with the main conference program. All of the papers havebeen peer reviewedby the members of the ProgramCommittee and external reviewers; 45 regular papers and 12 short papers were selected. They represent the state of the art of research in KSEM-related research areas. The International Conference on Knowledge Science, Engineering and M- agement in 2010 was the fourth event in the series of successful conferences, previously held in Guilin, China, Melbourne, Australia, and Vienna, Austria. It speci?cally focused on becoming a premier forum for prototype and deployed knowledge engineering and knowledge-based systems. KSEM o?ers an exc- tional opportunity for presenting original work, the latest scienti?c and te- nological advances on knowledge-related systems, and discussing and debating practical challenges and opportunities for the research community. A great many people contributed to making KSEM2010 a successful conf- ence. First of all, we would like to thank the KSEM2010 Organizing Committee and the School of Computing and Mathematics and the University of Ulster for providing crucial support throughout the organization of the conference.
Winner of ABC's award for Distinguished Publication for 2006 This book explores effective written communication across cultures both theoretically and practically. Specifically it conceptualizes cross-cultural genre study and compares English and Chinese business writing collected from Australia, New Zealand and China. It is also one of those inspired by contrastive rhetoric but has contributed innovatively and uniquely by incorporating research findings from genre analysis, in particular, the sociocognitive genre perspective into this cross-cultural study. On the one hand, the endeavor represents an in-depth theoretical exploration by considering not only discourse community and cognitive structuring, but also the deep semantics of genre and intertextuality, while broadening genre study by integrating insights from cross-cultural communication as well as the Chinese perspectives. On the other hand, the book also addresses pragmatic issues. As a particular feature, it solicits professional members' intercultural viewpoints; thus confirming the shared social "stock of knowledge" employed in the culturally defined writing conventions. Last but not least, this book explores the implications for genre education and training, and develops an appropriate model for cross-cultural genre learning, which encourages learning through legitimate peripheral participation and intercultural learning in business organizations.
The healthcare industry produces a constant flow of data, creating a need for deep analysis of databases through data mining tools and techniques resulting in expanded medical research, diagnosis, and treatment. Data Mining and Medical Knowledge Management: Cases and Applications presents case studies on applications of various modern data mining methods in several important areas of medicine, covering classical data mining methods, elaborated approaches related to mining in electroencephalogram and electrocardiogram data, and methods related to mining in genetic data. A premier resource for those involved in data mining and medical knowledge management, this book tackles ethical issues related to cost-sensitive learning in medicine and produces theoretical contributions concerning general problems of data, information, knowledge, and ontologies.
Louis A. Arena University of Delaware Newark, DE This monograph contains select, revised, and invited papers which deal with the topic, Language Proficiency: Defining, Teaching, and Testing. This topic was the theme of the eighth annual symposium held at the University of Delaware. The papers contained in this volume are invited papers or were originally scheduled for presentation and/or presented at the eighth annual Delaware Symposium on Language Studies. The papers combine research con ducted in the areas of teaching, testing, and defining second language pro ficiency within the profession of applied linguistics. They are divided into three principal sections: "Applied Linguistics and Language Pro ficiency", "Language Proficiency in Reading and Writing", and "Testing for Language Proficiency". In Part I, Paul Angelis' "Applied Linguistics: Realities and Projections re the Teaching Profession'; sketches a historical portrait of Applied Linguistics, its definition, presence, and role in the profession that teaches second language proficiency. Angelis concludes that Applied Linguistics is still a young discipline in terms of substance, organization, and strategy, and that these three components will determine the prospects for the future of applied linguistics re the teaching profession. The next six papers address the issue of second language proficiency from various points of view. Kensaku Yoshida's essay "Knowing vs Believing vs Feeling: Studies on Japanese Bilinguals" concludes that some Japanese bilinguals are actually not necessarily bilingual because they very often face problems requiring other kinds of proficiency, i. e.
John H. Sceski argues that Karl Popper's philosophy offers a radical treatment of objectivity that can reconcile freedom and progress in a manner that preserves the best elements of the Enlightenment tradition. His book traces the development of Popper's account of objectivity by examining his original contributions to key issues in the philosophy of science. Popper's early confrontation with logical positivism, his rarely discussed four-fold treatment of the problem of induction, and his theory of propensities and evolutionary epistemology are linked in a novel way to produce a coherent and philosophically relevant picture of objectivity. Sceski also explores and clarifies many central issues in the philosophy of science such as probabilistic support, verisimilitude, and the relationship between special relativity and indeterminism. He concludes that Popper's account of objectivity can best bridge the gap between Enlightenment aims for science and freedom and post-modern misgivings about 'truth', by developing a philosophy that is non-foundationalist yet able to account for the growth of knowledge.
RuleML 2005 was the ?rst international conference on rules and rule markup languages for the Semantic Web, held in conjunction with the International Semantic Web C- ference (ISWC) at Galway, Ireland. With the success of the RuleML workshop series came the need for extended research and applications topics organized in a conference format. RuleML 2005 also accommodated the ?rst Workshop on OWL: Experiences and Directions. Rules are widely recognized to be a major part of the frontier of the Semantic Web, and critical to the early adoption and applications of knowledge-based techniques in- business, especially enterprise integration and B2B e-commerce. This includes kno- edge representation (KR) theory and algorithms; markup languages based on such KR; engines, translators, and other tools; relationships to standardization efforts; and, not least, applications. Interest and activity in the area of rules for the Semantic Web has grown rapidly over the last ?ve years. The RuleML 2005 Conference was aimed to be this year’s premiere scienti?c conference on the topic. It continued in topic, leadership, and collaboration with the previous series of three highly successful annual inter- tional workshops (RuleML 2004, RuleML 2003 and RuleML 2002). The theme for RuleML 2005 was rule languages for reactive and proactive rules, complex event p- cessing, and event-driven rules, to support the emergence of Semantic Web applications. Special highlights of the RuleML 2005 conference included the keynote address by Sir Tim Berners- Lee, Director of W3C.
Most machine learning research has been concerned with the development of systems that implememnt one type of inference within a single representational paradigm. Such systems, which can be called monostrategy learning systems, include those for empirical induction of decision trees or rules, explanation-based generalization, neural net learning from examples, genetic algorithm-based learning, and others. Monostrategy learning systems can be very effective and useful if learning problems to which they are applied are sufficiently narrowly defined. Many real-world applications, however, pose learning problems that go beyond the capability of monostrategy learning methods. In view of this, recent years have witnessed a growing interest in developing multistrategy systems, which integrate two or more inference types and/or paradigms within one learning system. Such multistrategy systems take advantage of the complementarity of different inference types or representational mechanisms. Therefore, they have a potential to be more versatile and more powerful than monostrategy systems. On the other hand, due to their greater complexity, their development is significantly more difficult and represents a new great challenge to the machine learning community. Multistrategy Learning contains contributions characteristic of the current research in this area.
This volume reports on the development of the Advanced English Reading Test in China.
First published in 1990. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
This series will include monographs and collections of studies devoted to the investigation and exploration of knowledge, information, and data processing systems of all kinds, no matter whether human, (other) animal, or machine. Its scope is intended to span the full range of interests from classical problems in the philosophy of mind and philosophical psychol ogy through issues in cognitive psychology and sociobiology (concerning the mental capabilities of other species) to ideas related to artificial intelligence and computer science. While primary emphasis will be placed upon theoretical, conceptual, and epistemological aspects of these problems and domains, empirical, experimental, and methodological studies will also appear from time to time. The problems posed by metaphor and analogy are among the most challenging that confront the field of knowledge representation. In this study, Eileen Way has drawn upon the combined resources of philosophy, psychology, and computer science in developing a systematic and illuminating theoretical framework for understanding metaphors and analogies. While her work provides solutions to difficult problems of knowledge representation, it goes much further by investigating some of the most important philosophical assumptions that prevail within artificial intelligence today. By exposing the limitations inherent in the assumption that languages are both literal and truth-functional, she has advanced our grasp of the nature of language itself. J.R.F.
The refereed technical papers in this volume present new and innovative developments in this important field; essential reading for those who wish to keep up to date on intelligent systems.
What every special education teacher needs to know to survive and thrive A Survival Guide for New Special Educators provides relevant, practical information for new special education teachers across a broad range of topic areas. Drawing on the latest research on special educator effectiveness and retention, this comprehensive, go-to resource addresses the most pressing needs of novice instructors, resource teachers, and inclusion specialists. Offers research-based, classroom-tested strategies for working with a variety of special needs students Covers everything from preparing for the new school year to behavior management, customizing curriculum, creating effective IEPs, and more Billingsley and Brownell are noted experts in special educator training and support This highly practical book is filled with checklists, forms, and tools that special educators can use every day to help ensure that all special needs students get the rich, rewarding education they deserve.
Concept Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) is a unique, classroom-tested model of reading instruction that breaks new ground by explicitly showing how content knowledge, reading strategies, and motivational support all merge in successful reading instruction. A theoretical perspective (engagement in reading) frames the book and provides a backdrop for its linkage between hands-on science activities and reading comprehension. Currently funded by the Interagency Educational Research Initiative (IERI), this model has been extensively class tested and is receiving national attention that includes being featured on a PBS special on the teaching of reading. Key features of this outstanding new volume include: *Theoretical Focus--CORI's teaching framework revolves around the engagement perspective of reading: how engaged reading develops and the classroom contexts and motivational supports that promote it. *Content-Area Focus--Although science is the content area around which CORI has been developed, its basic framework is applicable to other content areas. *Focus on Strategy Instruction--CORI revolves around a specific set of reading strategies that the National Reading Panel (2000) found to be effective. In some current CORI classrooms collaborating teachers implement all aspects of CORI and in other classrooms teachers implement just the strategy instruction component. *Illustrative Vignettes and Cases--Throughout the book vignettes and mini-case studies convey a situated view of instructional practices for reading comprehension and engagement. A detailed case study of one teacher and of the reading progress of her students is featured in one chapter. This book is appropriate for graduate and advanced undergraduate students in education and psychology, for practicing teachers, and for researchers in reading comprehension and motivation.

Best Books