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The application of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) in the Mediterranean and Black Sea faces several challenges also because of large ecological, economic, political and institutional differences across the basin. The challenge of CFP application is exacerbated by the legal/administrative situation, with large areas outside national/EU jurisdictions, by the different development of fisheries that result in fleet capacities highly different on opposite shores of some sub-basins, as well as by uneven monitoring and data availability across the basins that result in situations that hamper sustainable management. This book collates analyses related to the application of the principles included in the CFP in Mediterranean and Black Sea, including assessments of current status, scenario analyses, visions of best solutions, evaluation of critical hot spots and effects of regionalization of fisheries management. The eBook tackles from local to transboundary issues and solutions and provides a broad vision of problems together with important practical solutions for CFP application in the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
Protected marine species have populations that are depleted, decreasing, or are at-risk of extinction or local extirpation. As of 2015 The International Union for the Conservation of Nature, a global environmental organization, lists approximately 737 marine species worldwide that are considered at risk of extinction. Many are provided legal protection through national laws requiring research and management measures aimed at recovering and maintaining the species at a sustainable population level. Integral to the policy decision process involving the management and recovery of marine species is the consideration of trade-offs between the economic and ecological costs and benefits of protection. This suggests that economics, at its core the study of trade-offs, has a significant role. In the U.S. a somewhat traditional use of economics in protected species research and management has involved cost minimization or cost-effectiveness analyses to help select or prioritize conservation actions. Economic research has also provided estimates of public non-market benefits of recovering species, which can be used in larger management frameworks such as ecosystem based management and coastal and marine spatial planning. Inherent in much of this research, however, are complex biological and ecological relationships in which varying degrees of scientific uncertainty are present. Addressing this type of uncertainty can affect the economic outcomes related to protected species. For example, recent work suggests that increasing scientific precision in biological sampling and models can greatly affect the magnitude of economic benefits to commercial fisheries, while other research suggests that public non-market benefits of species recovery are sensitive to uncertainty about baseline population estimates. Previous research has illustrated the importance of understanding the biological, ecological, and economic aspects of protected species management and recovery. In this research topic we synthesize current protected marine species economic research and expand the discussion on present and future challenges related to protected species economics. The series of manuscripts brings together an array of prominent researchers and advances our understanding of the ecological and economic aspects of managing and recovering protected marine species.
Health and safety of food and feed are the most important criteria for their quality. The quality of feed is in turn important for animal health, the environment and for the safety of food from animal origin. Fungi belonging to the Fusarium genus are widespread in crops causing plant diseases and producing toxic metabolites. Fusarium species can colonize plants during their growth on the field and cause serious damage in terms of yield and quality of harvested grains. One of the most important fungal diseases of wheat and other cereals in the world is Fusariumhead blight caused by the fungal pathogens Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorumand others. In addition, these fungi produce mycotoxins, contaminating food and feed. The most important Fusarium mycotoxins include trichothecenes, zearalenone and fumonisins, primarily because of their prevalence, but also because of the toxic effect to humans and animals. However, these fungi produce also other mycotoxins such as moniliformin, beauvericin, enniantin or fusarins. Food and feed can be contaminated with mycotoxins at various stages in the production chain resulting in serious problems with health, safety and economic losses. It is estimated that 25% of the crop in the world each year are contaminated with these metabolites, the problem affects both industrialized countries and developing countries. The aim of this Research Topic of Frontiers in Microbiology is to publish state of the art research about occurrence and genomics of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in the whole food and feed chain starting from the crops as well as implications for health and economic aspects. This research topic highlights the current knowledge on the plant diseases caused by Fusarium fungi as well as all aspects of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination of crops, food and feed, taking into account decontamination methods.
Invasive alien species are non-indigenous taxa introduced to areas beyond their natural distribution and bio-geographical barriers by human activity, with important impacts on biodiversity, human health and ecosystem services. With the human population being higher than ever before and increasing, together with unprecedented rates of mobility of humans and goods, the introduction of new invasive species is more common than ever and is at the forefront of research in many disciplines such as ecology, epidemiology and food security. The mechanisms of successful introduction, establishment and spread of invasive alien species are highly complex as biological, social, geographic, economic and climatic factors influence the way an invasive species is introduced and determine the options available for its eventual detection and control. With the rapid development of smart sensors, social networks, digital maps and remotely-sensed imagery, spatio-temporal data are more ubiquitous and richer than ever before. The availability of such large datasets (Big data) poses great challenges in data analysis. In addition, increased availability of computing power facilitates the use of computationally-intensive methods for the analysis of such data. Thus new methods are needed to efficiently study and understand biological invasions. A Research Topic held in Frontiers Environmental Informatics aimed to address this topic. Methods are defined in the widest terms and may be analytical, practical or conceptual. Among others, a key aim of the thematic was to maximize the use of the proposed methods/techniques by the scientific community and environmental stakeholders.
Biological engagement programs are a set of projects or activities between partner countries that strengthen global health security to achieve mutually beneficial outcomes. Engagement programs are an effective way to work collaboratively towards a common threat reduction goal, usually with a strong focus on strengthening health systems and making the world a safer place. Cooperative programs are built upon trust and sharing of information and resources to increase the capacity and capabilities of partner countries. Biological engagement programs reduce the threat of infectious disease with a focus on pathogens of security concern, such as those pathogens identified by the U.S. Government as Biological Select Agent and Toxins. These programs seek to develop technical or scientific relationships between countries to combat infectious diseases both in humans and animals. Through laboratory biorisk management, diagnostics, pathogen detection, biosurveillance and countermeasure development for infectious diseases, deep relationships are fostered between countries. Biological engagement programs are designed to address dual-use issues in pathogen research by promoting responsible science methodologies and cultures. Scientific collaboration is a core mechanism for engagement programs are designed to strengthen global health security, including prevention of avoidable epidemics; detection of threats as early as possible; and rapid and effective outbreak response. This Research Topic discusses Biological Engagement Programs, highlighting the successes and challenges of these cooperative programs. Articles in this topic outlined established engagement programs as well as described what has been learned from historical cooperative engagement programs not focused on infectious diseases. Articles in this topic highlighted selected research, trainings, and programs in Biological Engagement Programs from around the world. This Topic eBook first delves into Policies and Lessons Learned; then describes Initiatives in Biosafety & Biosecurity; the core of this work documents Cooperative Research Results from the field; then lastly the Topic lays out potential Future Directions to the continued success of the World’s cooperative science in reducing the threat of infectious diseases.

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