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The heart has a very high energy demand but very little energy reserves. In order to sustain contractile function, the heart has to continually produce a large amount of ATP. The heart utilizes free fatty acids mainly and carbohydrates to some extent as substrates for making energy and any change in this energy supply can seriously compromise cardiac function. It has emerged that alterations in cardiac energy metabolism are a major contributor to the development of a number of different forms of heart disease. It is also now known that optimizing energy metabolism in the heart is a viable and important approach to treating various forms of heart disease. Cardiac Energy Metabolism in Health and Disease describes the research advances that have been made in understanding what controls cardiac energy metabolism at molecular, transcriptional and physiological levels. It also describes how alterations in energy metabolism contribute to the development of heart dysfunction and how optimization of energy metabolism can be used to treat heart disease. The topics covered include a discussion of the effects of myocardial ischemia, diabetes, obesity, hypertrophy, heart failure, and genetic disorders of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism on cardiac energetics. The treatment of heart disease by optimizing energy metabolism is also discussed, which includes increasing overall energy production as well as increasing the efficiency of energy production and switching energy substrate preference of the heart. This book will be a valuable source of information to graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and investigators in the field of experimental cardiology as well as biochemists, physiologists, pharmacologists, cardiologists, cardiovascular surgeons and other health professionals.
This special issue of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry contains original research papers as well as invited reviews focused in the field of cardiac metabolism and its regulation under normal and disease conditions. These papers cover many areas under intensive and rapid development such as the regulation of fatty acid oxidation in the heart, the role of cardiac glycogen during ischemia, the role of CPT I isoenzymes, the pathophysiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy, cardiac protection through regulation of energy production, the role of fatty acid binding protein under normal and pathological conditions, and several other important topics in this area of research. We hope that this special issue of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry provides an up-to-date source of information for scientists and clinicians interested in the mechanism by which cardiac metabolism is regulated in health and disease and the mechanistic relationship between disturbances in cardiac metabolism and the genesis of cardiovascular diseases.
Endocrinology of the Heart in Health and Disease: Integrated, Cellular, and Molecular Endocrinology of the Heart covers the traditional concepts of cardio-endocrinology, the role of the various hormone systems, both in health and disease, therapeutic implications, and other recent advances in the various fields represented. The book explores how cardiac hormones are changed in various cardiac pathologies and the recent success that has been uncovered in their therapeutic use. Additional focus is placed on how the heart responds both physiologically and pathophysiologically to a plethora of circulating hormones, reinforcing the importance of the heart as a target of numerous endocrine systems, such as the brain, renal, and adipose. Significant advances have come from basic, clinical, and translational research from a multiplicity of investigators with diverse backgrounds. The book features over 200 photomicrographs, diagrams of molecular relationships, and tables that complement and support the text. It is aimed at a wide audience, including graduate students and post-doctoral fellows in a wide array of biomedical departments and PhD programs (e.g. Pathology, Physiology, Genetics, Pharmacology, Molecular Biology, and Cell Biology) related to the endocrine and cardiovascular sciences curricula, as well as medical residents in pathology, laboratory medicine, internal medicine, and cardiology. Develops the concept of the heart as both an endocrine organ and an endocrine target, exploring the endocrine function of the heart in both health and disease Explains how the levels of several cardiac hormones are changed in various cardiac pathologies and how some hormones can be used therapeutically Offers a single resource on cardio-endocrine disease which collates and curates the wide range of advances being made in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, physiology, and pathology
Signal Transduction in Cardiovascular System Health and Disease highlights the major contributions of different signaling systems in modulating normal cardiovascular functions and how a perturbation in these signaling events leads to abnormal cell functions and cardiovascular disorders. This title is volume 3 in the new Springer series, Advances in Biochemistry in Health and Disease.
Cellular and Molecular Pathobiology of Cardiovascular Disease focuses on the pathophysiology of common cardiovascular disease in the context of its underlying mechanisms and molecular biology. This book has been developed from the editors' experiences teaching an advanced cardiovascular pathology course for PhD trainees in the biomedical sciences, and trainees in cardiology, pathology, public health, and veterinary medicine. No other single text-reference combines clinical cardiology and cardiovascular pathology with enough molecular content for graduate students in both biomedical research and clinical departments. The text is complemented and supported by a rich variety of photomicrographs, diagrams of molecular relationships, and tables. It is uniquely useful to a wide audience of graduate students and post-doctoral fellows in areas from pathology to physiology, genetics, pharmacology, and more, as well as medical residents in pathology, laboratory medicine, internal medicine, cardiovascular surgery, and cardiology. Explains how to identify cardiovascular pathologies and compare with normal physiology to aid research Gives concise explanations of key issues and background reading suggestions Covers molecular bases of diseases for better understanding of molecular events that precede or accompany the development of pathology
As the majority of cardiovascular deaths are related to myocardial ischemia, it is necessary to understand the various aspects of ischemic heart disease. In this regard, it is noteworthy that ischemic heart disease is commonly associated with atherosclerosis, coronary spasm, as well as thrombosis leading to the development of arrhythmias, cardiovascular cell damage, myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy and congestive heart failure. Furthermore, it is also important to appreciate various physiological, electrophysiological and biochemical processes in the normal heart if we are to understand their significance under pathological situations. Heart Function in Health and Disease has been organized in five sections to provide an outline of a complex problem in a convenient manner. One section of this book is devoted to shedding light on the restructuring and ontogenic changes in the developing heart whereas in the next section some hypertrophic alterations due to chronic hypoxia are described. The third and fourth sections of this book are concerned with the regulation of cardiac channels as well as signal transduction mechanisms and cardiac electric field. The fifth section contains some pathophysiological events during the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. All of these areas encompass a significant body of new information that will be invaluable to those who work in the field of cardiovascular sciences, as well as those who treat people with heart disease.
The maintenance of arterial blood pressure and the distribution of blood flow to the various organs of the body depends on the control of the pumping action of the heart and of the resistance of the vascular beds in the individual organs in accordance with their metabolic needs. These controls are achieved through the integrated actions of circulat ing hormones, humoral factors that are synthesized and released in the heart and blood vessels, and the autonomic nervous system. The heart, however, is not only the target for the direct and indirect actions of a number of hormones and humoral factors, it is also an endocrine organ in the traditional sense, synthesizing and secreting into the circulation chemical factors that act at distant sites. In this treatise, Hormones and the Heart in Health and Disease, we interpret "endocrinology" broadly and consider traditional hormones as well as autocoids that are secreted by the heart or that act on it. In this overview, the relevant chapters are indicated in parentheses. The discovery of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP; atrial natriuretic factor, ANF) in the 1980s indicated that the heart does indeed function as an endocrine organ in the classic sense. ANP (Chapter I) is synthesized in the heart and secreted into the circulation for actions on the kidney, where it is a potent natriuretic agent, and on the vasculature, where it causes vasodilation. ANP can also affect myocardial contractility.
Chronic overconsumption of sugar and fat elevates plasma levels of insulin and free fatty acids, a process referred to as glucolipotoxicity. This phenomenon may lead to heart failure. This issue explores in depth the relationship between glucolipotoxicity and heart failure.
This careful revision keeps pace with developments in the field, with new chapters on PET Metabolism, CT and MRI in the Emergency Department, Image-Guided Electrophysiology Mapping and Ablation, and Identification of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque by Radionuclide and CT techniques, plus the introduction of new contributors Udo Hoffman and Stephan Achenbach. Praised in its previous edition as a concise source of essential information, this new edition presents the most recent information in an accessible format and serves as an excellent reference source for all cardiologists, radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians.
could go on for several pages. Thus the book edited This book emphasizes the fundamental, functional aspects of cardiology. Within the last thirty years, by Sperelakis IS a potent reminder of the almost for the rift between clinical and investigative cardiology gotten fact that cardiology has twO sites, inextrica has widened, because of the overwhelming devel bly related. opment of new clinical procedures, both diagnostic The book deals with subjects in which Dr. Sper and therapeutic. Almost forgotten is the fact that elakis has pioneered: ultrastructure of heart muscle, we owe most of the clinical advances to theoretical electrophysiology, cardiac contractility, and ion ex and experimental observations. I need not remind change. An extension of these subjects is the chapter the reader of the work of Carrel, who performed the dealing with fundamental topics of the coronary cir first experimental coronary bypass in 1902, or the culation. work of the brothers Curie in 1880, both physicists, This book is indeed a timely reminder of the im who discovered piezoelectricity, the keystone in ech portance of the fundamental aspects of cardiology. ogradiography; of the works of Langley, who intro Emphasis on clinical aspects of cardiology alone will duced the receptors concept; of Ahlquist in 1946, result in a sterile and unproductive future for a field who first differentiated between alpha and beta re that has made such stunning advances during the ceptors; of Fleckenstein, a physiologist who pi last thirty years to the benefit of millions of people.
Long used in sacred ceremonies and associated with good health, the nutritional and health promoting benefits of olives and olive oils have been proven by an ever-increasing body of science. From cardiovascular benefits to anti-microbial, anti-cancer, antioxidant activity and effects on macrophages and aptoptosis to cellular and pathophysiollogical process, olives and olive oils are proving important in many healthful ways. For example, reactive components in olive oils or olive oil by-products have now been isolated and identified. These include tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid elenolic acid and oleuropein. Oleic acid is the main monosaturated fatty acid of olive oil. These have putative protective effects and modulate the biochemistry of a variety of cell types including those of the vascular system. Some but not all components have been characterised by their putative pharmacological properties. It is possible that usage of these aforementioned products may have beneficial application in other disease. However, in order for this cross-fertilization to take place, a comprehensive understanding of olives and olive oils is required. Finding this knowledge in a single volume provides a key resource for scientists in a variety of food an nutritional roles. Key Features: * Explores olives and olive oil from their general aspects to the detailed level of important micro-and micronutrients * Includes coverage of various methodologies for analysis to help scientists and chemists determine the most appropriate option for their own studies, including those of olive-related compounds in other foods * Relates, in a single volume resource, information for food and nutritional chemists, pharmaceutical scientists, nutritionists and dieticians * Presents information in three key categories: General aspects of olives an olive oils; Nutritional, pharmacological and metabolic properties of olives and olive oil; Specific components of olive oil and their effects on tissue and body systems
Early Life Origins of Health and Disease is a new book which presents and discusses the many factors that may have impact on normal development. In a concise and readable manner, the authors consider both the proven and suggestive evidence that the high prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, obesity and, in some populations, kidney disease, may not be all due to genetics or adult environment alone. There is good evidence that stress and more subtle dietary deficiencies, as well as placental malfunction, may increase the risk that the offspring will develop these problems in later life. Finally, new and emerging evidence for other areas of human health and disease such a motor control and mental health is critically reviewed for the first time. The book is a ‘must’ for all scientists interested in researching these areas, as there is a critical evaluation of the methodology used and suggestions for the ‘optimal’ way in which to investigate these phenomena.
This special issue of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry contains original research articles and review papers which were invited from the participants of a recent meeting organized to honour the 60th birthday of Naranjan S. Dhalla, Ph.D., M.D.(Hon.). The meeting, organized by Drs. Morris Karmazyn (London), Grant Pierce (Winnipeg) and Balwant Tuana (Ottawa), was held at the Best Western Lakeside Inn in Kenora, Ontario, Canada on August 23-25, 1996. The meeting was entitled The Cellular Basis of Cardiovascular Function in Health and Disease. There were over 40 invited speakers from 15 different countries represented at the meeting, attended by over 280 people. Keynote lectures were presented by Drs. Norman Alpert (Burlington, VT), Robert Jennings (Chapel Hill, NC), Makoto Nagano (Tokyo, Japan), Howard Morgan (Danville, PA), John Solaro (Chicago, IL) and Nobuskira Takeda (Tokyo, Japan). Dr. Henry Friesen, President of the Medical Research Council of Canada, presented Dr. Dhalla with a plaque at the banquet honouring his research accomplishments over his distinguished career. Dr. Dhalla's outstanding research achievements in understanding the subcellular basis of cardiovascular disease were highlighted at the meeting. One of the unique aspects of the meeting was the special effort made by 39 former trainees of Dr. Dhalla to attend the meeting to honour their mentor. The ex-students and trainees came from all over Canada, the United States, Japan, Slovakia, Germany, the Czech Republic, Estonia and the Netherlands. The meeting was judged to be an overwhelming success in terms of the scientific content as well as collaborative interactions initiated.
This new edition of Exercise and the Heart in Health and Disease greatly advances the details of the first edition, expanding the amount of data on how to maximize cardiovascular health through exercise. A marriage of clinical cardiology and exercise physiology, this unique study improves assessment and prescription options for cardiologists, sports physicians, and other health professionals. Presenting the up-to-date work of 23 world-renowned experts, Exercise and the Heart in Health and Disease, Second Edition now contains new chapters and the latest findings on cardiovascular effects of exercise on women, emphasizing access to treatment the emerging issue of overtraining and the potential danger of hypertrophy of the myocardium in athletes the links between sudden cardiac death and exercise prescribing practices that focus on a more moderate active living approach exercise as a means of ameliorating vascular stress and hypertension tailoring exercise to different age groups and for high-risk patients with cardiovascular disorders the effects of exercise on conditions such as silent ischemia, angina, myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure the role of exercise in rehabilitation from coronary bypass surgery, angioplasty, and cardiac transplantation and much more! Clarifies the various prescription options, matching type, frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise with the individualized needs of patients! Prodigiously referenced with almost 2000 literature citations-700 more than the previous edition-and featuring over 100 highly instructive tables, graphs, and drawings, Exercise and the Heart in Health and Disease, Second Edition is indispensable for cardiologists and cardiac rehabilitation specialists, nurses, physiotherapists, exercise physiologists, sports medicine physicians, internists, family practitioners, and medical school and graduate students in these disciplines.
That a relation exists between lipids/lipoproteins and coronary artery disease is no longer an arguable point. However, the complexities associated with this relationship, and the number of factors that can impact and alter circumstances and clinical status, are many and diverse. Consequently, this relationship continues to receive a great deal of focus from researchers. Lipid Metabolism and Health, in presenting the latest statement from those positioned on the cutting edge in this arena, provides an overview and historical perspective of the evolution of serum lipids and lipoproteins. It traces their development from a mere curiosity to their acceptance as an established and major coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factor, and, ultimately, to their becoming the subject of clinical guidelines. Considerable attention is focused on the fundamentals, beginning with a chapter on basic lipidology, and progresses through such topics as lipid/lipoprotein metabolism, and the biology of atherosclerosis. Additional topics include methodologies for measuring lipoproteins, clinical strategies used to manage unhealthy lipid levels, and discussion of important influential factors such as obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome, diet/nutrition, exercise, cigarette smoking and environmental tobacco smoke, and age, as well as gender, race, and other heredity factors. Qualified and recognized experts in their specific fields of study were recruited by the editors to contribute chapters. They include top researchers in, nutrition, pharmacology, exercise science, and several areas of clinical medicine including cardiology, kinesiology, and immunology. Lipid Metabolism and Health provides a useful scientific and educational tool for researchers, clinicians, academicians, and students seeking a timely and bona fide source of information on the relationship between lipids and health.
There is much interest today in the essentiality of choline. The proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Phospholipids updates the nutrition, health, and medical research community on the latest work being done on phospholipids in health and disease. Both review papers and original research are included.
Degradation of heme involves its conversion to biliverdin by heme oxygenase followed by reduction of biliverdin to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. There is ample evidence for the pleiotropic functions of biliverdin reductase in cell signaling and regulation of gene expression. This enzyme plays a major role in glucose uptake and the stress response. Bilirubin has been shown to behave as a "double-edged sword". It can exert either cytotoxic or cytoprotective effects, depending on the blood and/or tissue concentration of its free fraction, the nature of the target cell or tissue, and the cellular redox state. Its antioxidant effect is the basis for the proposed cardioprotective effect of relatively low blood concentrations of bilirubin in humans with moderate hyperbilirubinemia. This Special Topic forum is intended to serve as a platform for updating information and presenting advances in basic and clinical research in the above and related subjects.
Cardiac output has always been a subject of interest to both clinicians and researchers in different branches of medicine and surgery. In the last decade more attention has also been paid to its application in pediatrics, neonatology, fetal medicine and pregnancy. Better understanding of the peripheral circulation has provided more insight into the patholophysiology of different diseases. Many cardiac and non-cardiac disorders affect cardiac outputs. Monitoring of the changes in cardiac output is also important in the acutely ill patient. There are several methods to measure cardiac output, each with advantages and pitfalls. This book deals with all relevant aspects of cardiac output in eight parts: part one describes the methods of measuring cardiac output and a comparison between the catheterisation based and the noninvasive techniques, while part two describes the changes in cardiac output due to physiological causes. Part three describes cardiac output in cardiac diseases and systemic hypertension. Cardiac output in acutely ill patients is discussed in part four. Effect of cardiac medications, temporary atrial pacing, permanent pacing, pharmacologic stress testing and anesthesia are covered in detail in part six, while changes in cardiac output in noncardiac diseases are described in part seven. Finally great attention has been paid in part eight to the regional circulation including cerebral, coronary, skeletal and splanchnic circulations. A separate chapter discusses in detail the dynamics of blood flow. This book will be useful both to the cardiologists as well as to physicians in other fields of surgery and medicine and to their trainees. Readers will find this book an interesting and a useful reference on the topic of cardiac output.
This issue of Endocrinology Clinics, authored by experts worldwide, provides essential updates about insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). The physiology is examined, including the latest in what we have learned from animal models as well as humans. The issue also covers IGFs and IGF system in the following: growth disorders; adipogenesis and obesity; muscle function and disease; bone; cancer; cardiac function and disease; normal and diseased kidney; peripheral nervous systems; gastrointestinal diseases; diabetes and metabolism; and IGF-1 central/degenerative diseases.

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