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This ready reference presents environmentally friendly and stereoselective methods of modern biocatalysis. The experienced and renowned team of editors have gathered top international authors for this book. They cover such emerging topics as chemoenzymatic methods and multistep enzymatic reactions, while showing how these novel methods and concepts can be used for practical applications. Multidisciplinary topics, including directed evolution, dynamic kinetic resolution, and continuous-flow methodology are also discussed. From the contents: * Directed Evolution of Ligninolytic Oxidoreductases: from Functional Expression to Stabilization and Beyond * New Trends in the In Situ Enzymatic Recycling of NAD(P)(H) Cofactors * Monooxygenase-Catalyzed Redox Cascade Biotransformations * Biocatalytic Redox Cascades Involving w-Transaminases * Multi-Enzyme Systems and Cascade Reactions Involving Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases * Chemo-Enzymatic Cascade Reactions for the Synthesis of Glycoconjugates * Synergies of Chemistry and Biochemistry for the Production of Beta-Amino Acids * Racemizable Acyl Donors for Enzymatic Dynamic Kinetic Resolution * Stereoselective Hydrolase-Catalyzed Processes in Continuous-Flow Mode * Perspectives on Multienzyme Process Technology * Nitrile Converting Enzymes Involved in Natural and Synthetic Cascade Reactions * Mining Genomes for Nitrilases * Key-Study on the Kinetic Aspects of the In-Situ NHase/AMase Cascade System of M. imperiale Resting Cells for Nitrile Bioconversion * Enzymatic Stereoselective Synthesis of Beta-Amino Acids * New Applications of Transketolase: Cascade Reactions for Assay Development * Aldolases as Catalyst for the Synthesis of Carbohydrates and Analogs * Enzymatic Generation of Sialoconjugate Diversity * Methyltransferases in Biocatalysis * Chemoenzymatic Multistep One-Pot Processes
Green Biocatalysis presents an exciting green technology that uses mild and safe processes with high regioselectivity and enantioselectivity. Bioprocesses are carried out under ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure in aqueous conditions that do not require any protection and deprotection steps to shorten the synthetic process, offering waste prevention and using renewable resources. Drawing on the knowledge of over 70 internationally renowned experts in the field of biotechnology, Green Biocatalysis discusses a variety of case studies with emphases on process R&D and scale-up of enzymatic processes to catalyze different types of reactions. Random and directed evolution under process conditions to generate novel highly stable and active enzymes is described at length. This book features: A comprehensive review of green bioprocesses and application of enzymes in preparation of key compounds for pharmaceutical, fine chemical, agrochemical, cosmetic, flavor, and fragrance industries using diverse enzymatic reactions Discussion of the development of efficient and stable novel biocatalysts under process conditions by random and directed evolution and their applications for the development of environmentally friendly, efficient, economical, and sustainable green processes to get desired products in high yields and enantiopurity The most recent technological advances in enzymatic and microbial transformations and cuttingedge topics such as directed evolution by gene shuffling and enzyme engineering to improve biocatalysts With over 3000 references and 800 figures, tables, equations, and drawings, Green Biocatalysis is an excellent resource for biochemists, organic chemists, medicinal chemists, chemical engineers, microbiologists, pharmaceutical chemists, and undergraduate and graduate students in the aforementioned disciplines.
Advances in Enzyme Catalysis and Technologies intends to provide the basic structural and functional descriptions, and classification of enzymes. The scientific information related to the recombinant enzyme modifications, discovery of novel enzymes and development of synthetic enzymes are also presented. The translational aspects of enzyme catalysis and bioprocess technologies are illustrated, by emphasizing the current requirements and future perspectives of industrial biotechnology. Several case studies are included on enzymes for biofuels application, micro algal biorefineries, high-value bioactive molecules production and enzymes for environmental processes, such as enzymatic bioprocessing for functional food development, biocatalytic technologies for the production of functional sweetener, etc. Provides a conceptual understanding of enzyme catalysis, enzyme engineering, discovery of novel enzymes, and technology perspectives Includes comprehensive information about the inventions and advancement in enzyme system development for biomass processing and functional food developmental aspects Gives an updated reference for education and understanding of enzyme technology
This volume provides an insight into the future strategies for commercial biocatalysis with a focus on sustainable technologies, together with chemoenzymatic and biotechnological approaches to synthesize various types of approved and new active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) via proven and latest synthetic routes using single-step biocatalytic or enzyme cascade reactions. Many of these drugs act as enzyme inhibitors, as discussed in a chapter with a variety of examples. The targeted enzymes are involved in diseases such as different cancers, metastatic and infectious diseases, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disorders. The biocatalysts employed for API synthesis include hydrolytic enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenases, laccases, imine reductases, reductive aminases, peroxygenases, cytochrome P450 enzymes, polyketide synthases, transaminases, and halogenases. Many of them have been improved with respect to their properties by engineering methods. The book discusses the syntheses of drugs, including alkaloids and antibiotics, non-ribosomal peptides, antimalarial and antidiabetic drugs, prenylated xanthones, antioxidants, and many important (chiral) intermediates required for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals.
The application of biocatalysis in organic synthesis is rapidly gaining popularity amongst chemists. Compared to traditional synthetic methodologies biocatalysis offers a number of advantages in terms of enhanced selectivity (chemo-, regio-, stereo-), reduced environmental impact and lower cost of starting materials. Together these advantages can contribute to more sustainable manufacturing processes across a wide range of industries ranging from pharmaceuticals to biofuels. The biocatalytic toolbox has expanded significantly in the past five years and given the current rate of development of new engineered biocatalysts it is likely that the number of available biocatalysts will double in the next few years. This textbook gives a comprehensive overview of the current biocatalytic toolbox and also establishes new guidelines or rules for “biocatalytic retrosynthesis”. Retrosynthesis is a well known and commonly used technique whereby organic chemists start with the structure of their target molecule and generate potential starting materials and intermediates through a series of retrosynthetic disconnections. These disconnections are then used to devise a forward synthesis, in this case using biocatalytic transformations in some of the key steps. Target molecules are disconnected with consideration for applying biocatalysts, as well as chemical reagents and chemocatalysts, in the forward synthesis direction. Using this textbook, students will be able to place biocatalysis within the context of other synthetic transformations that they have learned earlier in their studies. This additional awareness of biocatalysis will equip students for the modern world of organic synthesis where biocatalysts play an increasingly important role. In addition to guidelines for identifying where biocatalysts can be applied in organic synthesis, this textbook also provides examples of current applications of biocatalysis using worked examples and case studies. Tutorials enable the reader to practice disconnecting target molecules to find the ‘hidden’ biocatalytic reactions which can be applied in the synthetic direction. The book contains a complete description of the current biocatalyst classes that are available for use and also suggests areas where new enzymes are likely to be developed in the next few years. This textbook is an essential resource for lecturers and students studying synthetic organic chemistry. It also serves as a handy reference for practicing chemists who wish to embed biocatalysis into their synthetic toolbox.
This book will focus on biocatalytic-chemical cascade reactions and their application in the synthesis of valuable chemicals. It covers the following topics: 1) Advantages and disadvantages of traditional chemical reactions and biocatalytic reactions; 2) The three modes of chemo-enzymatic transformations: separate-pot-two-step, one-pot-two-step and one-pot-one-step; 3) The current advances of chemo-enzymatic transformations organized by the three modes and types of enzymes; 4) Retro-synthesis based on both chemical and biocatalytic transformations and the synthetic applications; 5) Perspective of this cooperative biocatalytic-chemical synthetic technology. This book systematically presents the state-of-art, the opportunities and challenges of this field. It will help the readers to understand the importance, current advances, the opportunities and challenges of cooperative chemo-enzymatic synthetic technology and stimulate their interest in this field.
The three Science of Synthesis volumes on "Biocatalysis in Organic Synthesis" are designed to present the new possibilities offered by modern biocatalysis to the nonspecialist academic and industrial readership who are involved in practical organic synthesis. The goal of the reference work is to help start a new wave of enthusiasm for biocatalysis in the broader community and to give an overview of the field. As is the case with all of the Science of Synthesis volumes, "Biocatalysis in Organic Synthesis" offers critical reviews of organic transformations by experts, including typical or general experimental procedures. The content organization of the three volumes is based on the type of reaction performed under biocatalysis. Volume 2 covers reactions involving the formation of C-C bonds. Addition of carbon nucleophiles at C-O and C-N double bonds are reviewed, as are methods for the formation of C-C bonds at arenes and additions to C-C double bonds. Other chapters present transamination and reductive amination reactions, reduction of carbonyl compounds, and the chemistry of epoxides
The three Science of Synthesis volumes on "Biocatalysis in Organic Synthesis" are designed to present the new possibilities offered by modern biocatalysis to the nonspecialist academic and industrial readership who are involved in practical organic synthesis. The goal of the reference work is to help start a new wave of enthusiasm for biocatalysis in the broader community and to give an overview of the field. As is the case with all of the Science of Synthesis volumes, "Biocatalysis in Organic Synthesis" offers critical reviews of organic transformations by experts, including typical or general experimental procedures. The content organization of the three volumes is based on the type of reaction performed under biocatalysis. Volume 1 begins with chapters discussing the historical development of the field, sources of enzymes and appropriate selection of catalysts, and general strategies employed in biocatalysis. This is followed by reviews of the biocatalytic hydrolysis of various substrates. The volume concludes with chapters devoted to biocatalytic isomerizations, and the synthesis of glycosides.
Because enzyme-catalyzed reactions exhibit higher enantioselectivity, regioselectivity, substrate specificity, and stability, they require mild conditions to react while prompting higher reaction efficiency and product yields. Biocatalysis in the Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Industries examines the use of catalysts to produce fine chemicals and chiral intermediates in a variety of pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and other biotechnological applications. Written by internationally recognized scientists in biocatalysis, the authors analyze the synthesis of chiral intermediates for over 60 brand-name pharmaceuticals for a wide range of drug therapies and treatments. From starting material to product, the chapters offer detailed mechanisms that show chiral intermediates and other by-products for each reaction—including hydrolytic, acylation, halogenation, esterification, dehalogenation, oxidation-reduction, oxygenation, hydroxylation, deamination, transamination, and C–C, C–N, C–O bonds formation. Cutting-edge topics include advanced methodologies for gene shuffling and directed evolution of biocatalysts; the custom engineering of enzymes; the use of microbial cells and isolated biocatalysts; the use of renewable starting materials; and generating novel molecules by combinatorial biocatalysis and high-throughput screening. Focusing on industrial applications, the book also considers factors such as bulk processes, instrumentation, solvent selection, and techniques for catalyst immobilization, reusability, and yield optimization throughout. Biocatalysis in the Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Industries showcases the practical advantages and methodologies for using biocatalysts to develop and produce chiral pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals.
Biocatalysts are increasingly used by chemists engaged in fine chemical synthesis within both industry and academia. Today, there exists a huge choice of high-tech enzymes and whole cell biocatalysts, which add enormously to the repertoire of synthetic possibilities. Practical Methods for Biocatalysis and Biotransformations 3 will be a companion book to Practical Methods for Biocatalysis and Biotransformations (2009) and Practical Methods for Biocatalysis and Biotransformations 2 (2012). Following the successful format of the two volumes, it will be a “how-to” guide focusing on commercially available enzymes and strains of microorganisms that are readily obtained from culture collections. The source of starting materials and reagents, hints, tips and safety advice (where appropriate) will be given to ensure, as far as possible, that the procedures are reproducible. Comparisons to alternative methodology will be given and relevant references to the primary literature will be cited. Contents include: Biotransformation Process Technology Industrial Biooxidation Hydrolase catalysed hydrolysis/synthesis Reduction Oxidation Halogenation Transferase catalysed glycosylation, methylation, etc C-C bond formation Tandem Biocatalytic Reactions Practical Methods for Biocatalysis and Biotransformations, Volume 3 is an essential collection of validated biocatalytic methods which will find a place on the bookshelves of synthetic organic chemists, pharmaceutical chemists, and process R&D chemists in industry and academia.
The three Science of Synthesis volumes on "Biocatalysis in Organic Synthesis" present the possibilities offered by modern biocatalysis to the nonspecialist academic and industrial readership who are involved in practical organic synthesis. The goal of the reference work is to start a new wave of enthusiasm for biocatalysis in the broader community and to give an overview of the field. As all SoS volumes, "Biocatalysis in Organic Synthesis" offers critical reviews of organic transformations by experts, including experimental procedures. The organization is based on the type of reaction performed under biocatalysis. Volume 3 begins by describing oxidation. A chapter on dihydroxylation is followed by reviews of alkane oxidation. Oxidations of alcohols, carbonyl compounds, and heteroatoms are also covered, as are halogenations. The use of biocatalysts in total synthesis, cascade reactions, and the development of large-scale processes are considered. Finally, emerging trends are outlined.
Provides clear and comprehensive coverage of recently developed applied biocatalysis for synthetic organic chemists with an emphasis to promote green chemistry in pharmaceutical and process chemistry This book aims to make biocatalysis more accessible to both academic and industrial synthetic organic chemists. It focuses on current topics within the applied industrial biocatalysis field and includes short but detailed experimental methods on timely novel biocatalytic transformations using new enzymes or new methodologies using known enzymes. The book also features reactions that are “expanding and making the enzyme toolbox available to chemists”—providing readers with comprehensive methodology and detailed key sourcing information of a wide range of enzymes. Chapters in Applied Biocatalysis: The Chemist’s Enzyme Toolkit are organized by reaction type and feature a short introductory section describing the current state of the art for each example. Much of the book focuses on processes for which the enzymes are readily available so that organic chemists can synthesize appropriate quantities of chemicals with available materials in a standard chemical laboratory. Advanced methods are included to present examples of new enzymes that might encourage collaboration with suppliers or academic groups and that will educate chemists of rapidly expanding future possibilities. Focuses on current topics within the applied industrial biocatalysis field Offers experimental methods on novel biocatalytic transformations using new enzymes or new methodology using known enzymes Covers the hot topics of enzyme and chemoenzymatic cascades and biocatalysis in flow Edited by noted experts from both academia and industry with years of experience in the field of biocatalysis—particularly, the industrial applications of enzymes Written for synthetic organic chemists working in all industries but especially the pharmaceutical industry and for those in academia with an eye for biocatalysis, Applied Biocatalysis: The Chemist’s Enzyme Toolkit will also benefit academic groups in chemistry and related sciences that are using enzymes for synthetic purposes, as well as those working in the area of enzymology and molecular biology.
Polymer biocatalysis and biomaterials : current trends and developments / H.N. Cheng and Richard A, Gross -- Novel biorelated materials -- Enzyme immobilization and assembly -- New synthetic approaches -- Polyesters and polyamides -- Polysaccharides, glycopolymers, and sugars -- Silicone-containing materials.
This second edition of a bestselling textbook offers an instructive and comprehensive overview of our current knowledge of biocatalysis and enzyme technology. The book now contains about 40% more printed content. Three chapters are completely new, while the others have been thoroughly updated, and a section with problems and solutions as well as new case studies have been added. Following an introduction to the history of enzyme applications, the text goes on to cover in depth enzyme mechanisms and kinetics, production, recovery, characterization and design by protein engineering. The authors treat a broad range of applications of soluble and immobilized biocatalysts, including wholecell systems, the use of non-aqueous reaction systems, applications in organic synthesis, bioreactor design and reaction engineering. Methods to estimate the sustainability, important internet resources and their evaluation, and legislation concerning the use of biocatalysts are also covered.
Lactones and lactams are cyclic esters and amides, respectively. They are the monomers of polyesters and polyamides, such as polycaprolactone and polycaprolactam, which are the commonly used polymer materials in our daily life and in industry. Apart from that, lactones and lactams are also widely used as raw materials in the pharmaceutical industry and as flavors and fragrances or laundry detergents for bleaching. Up to date, the industrial synthesis of most of the lactones and lactams applies chemical synthesis methods established decades ago that need expensive metal catalysts, aggressive chemicals, high temperature, and depend on non-renewable resources. Thus, there is a necessity to develop more sustainable methods for the synthesis of lactones and lactams. In general, enzymatic reactions show high selectivity and can be conducted in mild conditions leading to environmentally benign approaches compared to chemical methods. In the first part of the PhD study, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent redox-neutral convergent cascade for lactonizations was developed. The redox-neutral convergent cascade is composed of a recently discovered type II flavin-containing monooxygenase from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 (FMO-E) and the well-known horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLADH). Two molar equivalents of ketone substrate converted by FMO-E and one molar equivalent of diol substrate converted by HLADH were converted into three molar equivalents of the single lactone product with high atom efficiency and self-sufficient cofactor regeneration. Two model cascade reactions were demonstrated for the synthesis of [gamma]-butyrolactone and chiral bicyclic lactones. Biochemical characterization of FMO-E and HLADH was firstly done using the individual substrates of the enzymes in the evaluated cascades in order to find the optimal reaction conditions. Having identified the optimized conditions for the enzymatic cascade, achiral and chiral lactone products could be synthesized in high analytical yields (87%) and moderate to high enantioselectivities (up to 99%). In the second part of the PhD study, a direct synthesis of lactams (5-, 6- and 7-membered) starting from amino alcohols in a parallel cascade was developed. HLADH together with the H2O forming NADH oxidase variant from Streptococcus mutans (SmNOX) made up the parallel cascade. First, crucial reaction parameters for the efficiency of this novel cascade reaction were elucidated. pH of the buffer, concentrations of HLADH and NAD+ were identified as the key parameters for the lactamization reaction. Under the optimized conditions, up to 95% analytical yields could be achieved in this newly developed cascade reaction in the case of [gamma]-butyrolactam, whereby the yield decreased with increasing ring-size, as also known from the literature for ring-closure reactions. Overall this PhD study dealt with new biocatalytic approaches for the synthesis of lactones and lactams. For lactone synthesis, NADH-dependent redox-neutral convergent cascade consisting of FMO-E and HLADH was developed for the synthesis of [gamma]-butyrolactone and chiral bicyclic lactones with high atom efficiency in a self-sufficient cofactor regeneration fashion. For lactam synthesis, it was the first report on the direct synthesis of lactams from amino alcohols catalyzed by an alcohol dehydrogenase. The NAD+ regeneration was also achieved by coupling the SmNOX forming H2O as the sole by-product.
In this Completely Revised and Extended Edition with a significantly enhanced content, all Chapters have been updated considering relevant literature and recent developments until 2016 together with application oriented examples with a focus on Industrial Biocatalysis. Newly treated topics comprise among others systems metabolic engineering approaches, metagenome screening, new tools for pathway engineering, and de-novo computational design as actual research areas in biocatalysis. Information about different aspects of RNA technologies, and completely new Chapters on 'Fluorescent Proteins' and 'Biocatalysis and Nanotechnology' are also included.
The three Science of Synthesis volumes on Biocatalysis in Organic Synthesis present a broad contemporary overview on the state-of-the-art in enzymatic methods for asymmetric synthesis suitable for academics and industrial researchers working in the field of organic synthesis. The goal is to start a new wave of enthusiasm for biocatalysis in the broader community and to give an overview of the field. Biocatalysis in Organic Synthesis offers critical reviews of organic transformations by experts, including experimental procedures. The organization is based on the type of reaction performed under biocatalysis. Volume 3 begins with oxidation. A chapter on enzyme-catalyzed dihydroxylation is followed by reviews of alkane oxidation. Oxidations of alcohols, carbonyl compounds, and heteroatoms are covered, as are halogenations. The use of biocatalysts in total synthesis, cascade reactions, and large-scale industrial applications is considered. Finally, emerging trends are discussed.
Biocatalysts are increasingly used by chemists engaged in finechemical synthesis within both industry and academia. Today, thereexists a huge choice of high-tech enzymes and whole cellbiocatalysts, which add enormously to the repertoire of syntheticpossibilities. Practical Methods for Biocatalysis and Biotransformations2 is a "how-to" guide that focuses on the practicalapplications of enzymes and strains of microorganisms that arereadily obtained or derived from culture collections. The sourcesof starting materials and reagents, hints, tips and safety advice(where appropriate) are given to ensure, as far as possible, thatthe procedures are reproducible. Comparisons to alternativemethodology are given and relevant references to the primaryliterature are cited. This second volume – which can be usedon its own or in combination with the first volume - concentrateson new applications and new enzyme families reported since thefirst volume. Contents include: introduction to recent developments and future needs inbiocatalysts and synthetic biology in industry reductive amination enoate reductases for reduction of electron deficientalkenes industrial carbonyl reduction regio- and stereo- selective hydroxylation oxidation of alcohols selective oxidation industrial hydrolases and related enzymes transferases for alkylation, glycosylation andphosphorylation C-C bond formation and decarboxylation halogenation/dehalogenation/heteroatom oxidation tandem and sequential multi-enzymatic syntheses Practical Methods for Biocatalysis and Biotransformations2 is an essential collection of biocatalytic methods forchemical synthesis which will find a place on the bookshelves ofsynthetic organic chemists, pharmaceutical chemists, and processR&D chemists in industry and academia.

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