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Catalysis by Metals and Alloys
Metal-Support and Metal-Additive Effects in Catalysis, Volume 11, documents the proceedings of an international symposium organized by the Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse - CNRS – Villeurbanne and sponsored by the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Ecully (Lyon), September 14-16, 1982. This volume contains 40 manuscripts that cover a wide range of topics. Among these are studies of metal-support interactions involving Pt/Al2O3, Pt/TiO2,Fe/TiO2, Pt/MgO, Rh /Al2O3, and Pt/CeO2 catalysts. There are also separate chapters dealing with ethane, n-butane, and cyclohexane hydrogenolysis; skeletal isomerization of methylpentanes; the catalytic activity and selectivity of noble metals; CO hydrogenation over supported on SiO2, Al2O3, Ti O2,and Zr O2 nickel catalysts; and the role of promoters in Pd catalysts for methanol synthesis. Subsequent chapters cover the poisoning of platinum and nickel by sulfur; C6H6 and CO chemisorption on Pt78Ni22 (111) single crystal alloy; the surface composition of industrial ammonia synthesis catalysts; and the role of alkalis and electronegative promoters on Fe and Ni catalysts.
Homogeneous catalysis by soluble metal complexes has gained considerable attention due to its unique applications and features such as high activity and selectivity. Catalysis of this type has demonstrated impressive achievements in synthetic organic chemistry and commercial chemical technology. Homogeneous Catalysis with Metal Complexes: Kinetic Aspects and Mechanisms presents a comprehensive summary of the results obtained over the last sixty years in the field of the kinetics and mechanisms of organic and inorganic reactions catalyzed with metal complexes. Topics covered include: Specific features of catalytic reaction kinetics in the presence of various mono- and polynuclear metal complexes and nanoclusters Multi-route mechanisms and the methods of their identification, as well as approaches to the kinetics of polyfunctional catalytic systems Principles and features of the dynamic behavior of nonlinear kinetic models The potential, achievements, and limitations of applying the kinetic approach to the identification of complex reaction mechanisms The development of a rational strategy for designing kinetic models The kinetic models and mechanisms of many homogeneous catalytic processes employed in synthetic and commercial chemistry Written for specialists in the field of kinetics and catalysis, this book is also relevant for post-graduates engaged in the study
Catalysis underpins most modern industrial organic processes. It has become an essential tool in creating a 'greener' chemical industry by replacing more traditional stoichiometric reactions, which have high energy consumption and high waste production, with mild processes which increasingly resemble Nature's enzymes. Metal-Catalysis in Industrial Organic Processes considers the major areas of the field and discusses the logic of using catalysis in industrial processes. This popular book, now available as softback, provides information on oxidation, hydrogenation, carbonylation, C-C bond formation, metathesis and polymerization processes, as well as on the mechanisms involved. In addition two appendices offer a concise treatment of homogeneous and heterogenous catalysis. Numerous exercises referring to problems of catalytic processes, and research perspectives complete the book. This definitive reference source, written by practising experts in the field, provides detailed and up-to-date information on key aspects of metal catalysis.
Catalysis will be of interest to anyone working in academia and industry that needs an up-to-date critical analysis and summary of catalysis research and applications.
Written for chemists in industry and academia, this ready reference and handbook summarizes recent progress in the development of new catalysts that do not require precious metals. The research thus presented points the way to how new catalysts may ultimately supplant the use of precious metals in some types of reactions, while highlighting the remaining challenges. An essential copanion for organic and catalytic chemists, as well as those working with/on organometallics and graduate students. From the contents: * Catalysis Involving the H' Transfer Reactions of First-Row Transition Metals * Catalytic Reduction of Dinitrogen to Ammonia by Molybdenum Complexes * Molybdenum and Tungsten Catalysts for Hydrogenation, Hydrosilylation and Hydrolysis * Iron in Catalytic Alkene and Carbonyl Hydrogenation Reactions * Olefin Oligomerizations and Polymerizations Catalyzed by Iron and Cobalt Complexes * Cobalt and Nickel Catalyzed Reactions Involving C-H and C-N Activation Reactions * Development of Molecular Electrocatalysts for H2 Oxidation and Production Based on Inexpensive Metals * Nickel-Catalyzed Reductinve Couplings and Cyclizations * Copper-Catalyzed Ligand Promoted Ullmann-Type Coupling Reactions * Copper-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition * "Frustrated Lewis Pairs": A Metal-Free Strategy for Hydrogenation Catalysis
Catalysts are now widely used in both laboratory and industrial-scale chemistry. Indeed, it is hard to find any complex synthesis or industrial process that does not, at some stage, utilize a catalytic reaction. The development of homogeneous transition metal catalysts on the laboratory scale has demonstrated that these systems can be far superior to the equivalent heterogeneous systems, at least in terms of selectivity. is an increasing interest in this field of research from both an Thus, there academic and industrial point of view. In connection with the rapid developments in this area, four universities from the E.E.C (Aachen, FRG; Liege, Belgium; Milan, Italy; and Lille, France) have collaborated to organise a series of seminars for high-level students and researchers. These meetings have been sponsored by the Commission of the E.E.C and state organizations. The most recent of these meetings was held in Lille in September 1985 and this book contains updated and expanded presentations of most of the lectures given there. These lectures are concerned with the field of homogeneous transition metal catalysis and its application to the synthesis of organic intermediates and fine chemicals from an academic and industrial viewpoint. The continuing petroleum crisis which began in the early 1970s has given rise to the need to develop new feedstocks for the chemical industry.
This book presents up-to-date information about the catalysis and surface properties of liquid metals and liquid alloys. It is intended for use by chemical engineers and researchers in catalysis, surface science, liquid metals, and chemical process technologies.
This book deals with adsorption and catalysis on the surface of transition elements and their compounds, many of which are in teresting because of their particular electronic structure. The authors have worked through a vast body of experimental evi dence on the structure and properties of surfaces of transition metals and relevant oxides. Consideration is given mostly to simple (as opposed to mixed) oxides of transition elements, to common metals and to the adsorption of simple gases. A great deal of attention is paid to the nature of active surface sites responsible for chemisorption and catalytic transformations. The description relies mainly on the simplified ligand-field theory, which, however, proves quite satisfactory for predicting the adsorptive and catalytic activity of species. In many cases simple systems were explored with the aid of novel techniques, and it is only for such systems that the mechanism of the ele mentary act of adsorption and catalysis can be given adequate treatment. The present monograph has emerged from our earlier work in Russian, which appeared in the Khimiya Publishing House (Mos cow) in 1981. This English edition has, however, been revised completely to broaden its scope and to include more recent a chievements. For fruitful discussions the authors are grateful to A.A.
This unique book, drawing on the author’s lifetime experience, critically evaluates the extensive literature on the field of Metal-Catalysed Reactions of Hydrocarbons. Emphasis is placed on reaction mechanisms involving hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, skeletal and positional isomerisation, and exchange reactions. The motivation for fundamental research in heterogeneous catalysis is to identify the physicochemical characteristics of active centres for the reaction being studied, to learn how these may be modified or manipulated to improve the desired behavior of the catalyst, and to recognize and control those aspects of the catalyst's structure that limit its overall performance. By restricting the subject of the book to hydrocarbons, Bond has progressively developed the subject matter to include areas of importance both to researchers and to those working in the industry.
"Heterocycles from Transition Metal Catalysis: Formation and Functionalization" provides a concise summary of the prominent role of late transition metal (palladium, nickel, copper) catalysed processes in the synthesis and functionalization of heterocyclic systems. It gives an introduction to catalytic transformations, an overview of the most important reaction types, and presents synthetically useful catalytic processes classified by the target system and the type of transformation. The book provides a representative selection of transition metal catalysed reactions transformations that are relevant in heterocyclic chemistry. In this way, the authors present a useful resource for members of the academic community looking for a textbook as well as industrial chemists in search of a reference book. This book will be an invaluable resource for synthetic chemists, medicinal chemists, and those more generally interested in applied catalysis.
This volume continues the tradition formed in Nanotechnology in Catalysis 1 and 2. As with those books, this one is based upon an ACS symposium. Some of the most illustrious names in heterogeneous catalysis are among the contributors. The book covers: Design, synthesis, and control of catalysts at nanoscale; understanding of catalytic reaction at nanometer scale; characterization of nanomaterials as catalysts; nanoparticle metal or metal oxides catalysts; nanomaterials as catalyst supports; new catalytic applications of nanomaterials.
At the start of the 1950s, Ziegler and Natta discovered that simple metallorganic catalysts are capable of transforming olefins into linear polymers with highly ordered structures. This pioneering discovery was recognized with a Nobel Prize in 1963. In the 80s and 90s, the development of molecular defined metallocenes led to a renaissance for non-polar polyolefin materials. Designer catalysts allowed a greater precision in defining properties of the material. The past 10 years have seen the discovery of new catalysts based on late transition metals, which allow the combination of polar monomers with non-polar olefins and thus lead to innovative materials. Here, the world's leading authors from industry and academia describe the latest developments in this fascinating field for the first time in such comprehensive detail. In so doing, they introduce readers systematically to the basic principles and show how these new catalysts can effectively be used for polymerization reactions. This makes the book an ideal and indispensable reference for specialists, advanced students, and scientists of various disciplines dealing with research into catalysts and materials science.
In this thesis, the focus is on the study of new catalytic properties of unsupported nanoporous metals in heterogeneous organic reactions under liquid-phase conditions. The author was the first to fabricate nanoporous copper with tunable nanoporosity and apply it for organic reactions. The catalyst can be reused up to ten times without loss of catalytic activity. In addition, the author developed the highly selective semihydrogenation of alkynes using nanoporous gold as a catalyst for the first time, affording Z-alkenes in 100% selectivity, which cannot be realized by traditional catalysts. All of the results described here will help readers to develop new catalytic performance of nanoporous metals for organic reactions.
Focusing on preparation and applications in synthesis and catalysis, this book finally closes a gap in the literature by summarizing this hot topic for the first time. As such, it gathers in one volume the key features of metal vinylidene and allenylidene complexes as well as reactive species and covers applications in metathesis, polymerization, molecular materials, carbon rich compounds and fine chemical production. The emphasis here is on the selective transformations of alkynes and enynes plus simple and complex molecules containing a triple C-C bond. The result is a must-have ready reference for organic, catalytic, complex, theoretical and polymer chemists, as well as those working with/on organometallics.
Catalytic Hydrogenation over Platinum Metals focuses on catalytic hydrogenation as an effective process in attaining controlled transformations of organic compounds. Composed of contributions of various authors, the book first provides information on catalysts, equipment, and conditions. Catalyst stability and reuse; types of catalyst; platinum metals; and synergism are covered. The text proceeds with discussions on hydrogenation reactors. Topics include atmospheric pressure reactors; low pressure reactors; microreactors; and high pressure reactors. The book also covers hydrogenation of carbon-carbon unsaturation. Catalytic metal; modified catalyst systems; stereochemistry; diacetylenes; and hydrogenolysis are discussed. The text also looks at the hydrogenation of aromatics, nitrogen and carbonyl compounds, and hydrogenolysis. Numerical representations and analysis, diagrams, and reactions of compounds when exposed to different laboratory conditions are considered. The selection is a great source of data for readers interested in studying the process of catalytic hydrogenation.
Catalysis is a central topic in chemical transformation and energy conversion. Thanks to the spectacular achievements of colloidal chemistry and the synthesis of nanomaterials over the last two decades, there have also been significant advances in nanoparticle catalysis. Catalysis on different metal nanostructures with well-defined structures and composition has been extensively studied. Metal nanocrystals synthesized with colloidal chemistry exhibit different catalytic performances in contrast to metal nanoparticles prepared with impregnation or deposition precipitation. Additionally, theoretical approaches in predicting catalysis performance and understanding catalytic mechanism on these metal nanocatalysts have made significant progress. Metal Nanoparticles for Catalysis is a comprehensive text on catalysis on Nanoparticles, looking at both their synthesis and applications. Chapter topics include nanoreactor catalysis; Pd nanoparticles in C-C coupling reactions; metal salt-based gold nanocatalysts; theoretical insights into metal nanocatalysts; and nanoparticle mediated clock reaction. This book bridges the gap between nanomaterials synthesis and characterization, and catalysis. As such, this text will be a valuable resource for postgraduate students and researchers in these exciting fields.
N-Heterocyclic Carbenes in Transition Metal Catalysis and Organocatalysis features all catalytic reactions enabled by N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs), either directly as organocatalysts or as ligands for transition metal catalysts. An explosion in the use of NHCs has been reported in the literature during the past seven years making this comprehensive overview highly apropos. The book begins with an introductory overview of NHCs which could have been subtitled all you need to know about NHCs. The main body of the book is dedicated to applications of NHCs in catalysis. In addition to the success stories of NHCs in metathesis, NHCs in cross coupling and more recently NHCs in organocatalysis, all other less publicized areas are also covered. As the success of NHCs is generally attributed to their potential to stabilize metal centres, the inclusion of a chapter on the decomposition of NHC catalysts is pertinent. The book closes with a chapter describing the applications of NHCs in industrial processes, which is the first coverage of its kind, and brings a unique industrial context to this book. Included in this book: Historical aspects of NHCs Synthetic pathways to NHC precursors, free NHCs and complexes Methods of characterisation of NHCs and related complexes Electronic properties of NHCs Steric properties of NHCs and models for their description NHCs for metathesis and cross-coupling reactions NHCs as organocatalysts NHC Transition-Metal mediated oxidations, additions to multiple bonds, polymerisation and oligomerisation, cyclisations, direct arylations, reactions involving CO, C-F and C-H bond activation, ... Decomposition of NHC-containing catalysts Industrial applications involving NHC-containing catalysts N-Heterocyclic Carbenes in Transition Metal Catalysis and Organocatalysis provides a fresh view of NHCs since most contributors are young emerging researchers in the field of homogeneous catalysis using NHCs. This group of contributors is complemented by highly established academic researchers and an industrialist. This book is comprehensive, from the basic features of NHCs to the latest advances, hence it is suitable for both the novice and the expert.

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