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DNA and RNA fractions have been isolated from the whole blood, serum, plasma, the surface of blood cells, urine, saliva and spinal fluid from both healthy individuals and clinical patients. Recent developments are presented concerning the isolation, quantification and analysis of these molecules and their use in the identification of specific nucleic acid fragments related to a variety of clinical disorders thereby permitting their early diagnosis and prognosis.
DNA and RNA fractions can be isolated from a variety of body fluids including whole blood, serum, plasma, urine, saliva and cerebrospinal fluid from both patients and healthy individuals. Such isolates can be exploited in the early detection of clinical disorders, stratification of patients for treatment, treatment monitoring and clinical follow-up. In addition, the use in fetal medicine allows the early detection of fetal sex, Rh factor and aneuploid disorders as well as following both fetal and premature born infant development. This volume is intended as a primer for those who are interested in entering the field of circulating nucleic acids. The areas covered in this volume include: · Background and general biology of circulating nucleic acids · Methodology · Applications of circulating nucleic acids · Quality Assurance · Ethics
The book will present the progress made since the last meeting in fall 2013 concerning the analysis of circulating extra-cellular nucleic acids. There are a modest number of laboratories involved in this field, nevertheless the number of papers published by researchers is extensive. The articles which will be published in this meeting report will be a valuable contribution for researchers and research students alike and will help them to stay on top of the developments in different research areas and to „cross borders“ between them.
Free DNA present in both healthy and diseased human plasma has been found to express specific point mutations that may serve as diagnostic signposts - perhaps to reliable, non-invasive tests for breast and lung cancer, haematopoetic malignancies, colorectal or pancreatic carcinoma, and other tumours. In another research area, foetal DNA has been detected in maternal serum which presents an early-horizon alternative in utero test for gender. A parallel discovery of rearranged immunoglobin heavy-chain DNA in the plasma of patients wit Hodgkin's disease or acute B cell leukaemia has also emerged. These fast-emerging indicators suggest that it is time to standardize research techniques and develop protocols that can take a measure of circulating DNA's usefulness as a diagnostic tool. This volume, taken from the proceedings of a conference in August 1999, discusses such issues.
Numerous questions remain regarding the origin, release, clearance, clinical utility, and possible functionality of circulating nucleic acids. Serum proteomics is introduced as a new topic to CNAPS and is expected to provide yet another platform for breakthrough discoveries. Serum proteomics topics will address both cancer and early pregnancy.
DNA and RNA fractions have been isolated from whole blood, serum, plasma, the surface of blood cells, and urine from both healthy persons and patients. Specific fragments have been identified as being related to particular disorders, for example, diabetes, cancer, myocardial infarction, and stroke. The ability to isolate these fractions and assess their relationship to specific diseases makes early noninvasive diagnosis possible. This volume reports on the most recent progress in this field, including chapters on developing protocols for nucleic acid extraction, determining the origin of the circulating nucleic acids, the capacity of these nucleic acids to enter cells and exhibit biological activity, isolating and testing fetal cells from maternal blood, and discussing the clinical implications of these discoveries and developing the techniques that will bring them into clinical application. NOTE: Annals volumes are available for sale as individual books or as a journal. For information on institutional journal subscriptions, please visit www.blackwellpublishing.com/nyas. ACADEMY MEMBERS: Please contact the New York Academy of Sciences directly to place your order (www.nyas.org). Members of the New York Academy of Science receive full-text access to the Annals online and discounts on print volumes. Please visit http://www.nyas.org/MemberCenter/Join.aspx for more information about becoming a member
Numerous questions remain regarding the origin, release, clearance, clinical utility, and possible functionality of circulating nucleic acids. Serum proteomics is introduced as a new topic to CNAPS and is expected to provide yet another platform for breakthrough discoveries. Serum proteomics topics will address both cancer and early pregnancy.
Advances in Blood Research and Application / 2013 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ book that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Plasma. The editors have built Advances in Blood Research and Application: 2013 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Plasma in this book to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Advances in Blood Research and Application: 2013 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.
This book provides an overview of technical aspects in treatment of hemodialysis patients. Authors have contributed their most interesting findings in dealing with hemodialysis from the aspect of the tools and techniques used.Each chapter has been thoroughly revised and updated so the readers are acquainted with the latest data and observations in the area, where several aspects are to be considered. The book is comprehensive and not limited to a partial discussion of hemodialysis. To accomplish this we are pleased to have been able to summarize state of the art knowledge in each chapter of the book.
This book offers an overview of state-of-the-art in non amplified DNA detection methods and provides chemists, biochemists, biotechnologists and material scientists with an introduction to these methods. In fact all these fields have dedicated resources to the problem of nucleic acid detection, each contributing with their own specific methods and concepts. This book will explain the basic principles of the different non amplified DNA detection methods available, highlighting their respective advantages and limitations. Non-amplified DNA detection can be achieved by adopting different techniques. Such techniques have allowed the commercialization of innovative platforms for DNA detection that are expected to break into the DNA diagnostics market. The enhanced sensitivity required for the detection of non amplified genomic DNA has prompted new strategies that can achieve ultrasensitivity by combining specific materials with specific detection tools. Advanced materials play multiple roles in ultrasensitive detection. Optical and electrochemical detection tools are among the most widely investigated to analyze non amplified nucleic acids. Biosensors based on piezoelectric crystal have been also used to detect unamplified genomic DNA. The main scientific topics related to DNA diagnostics are discussed by an outstanding set of authors with proven experience in this field.
First introduced to biomedical research in 1980, the term biomarker has taken on a life of its own in recent years and has come to mean a number of things. In biomedical science, biomarker has evolved to most commonly mean a characteristic that can be used either as a diagnostic or a prognostic, but most significantly as a screening indicator for pathologies that tend to be somewhat silent prior to overt clinical display. Applying scientific rigor, as well as a disciplined approach to nomenclature, Roger Lundblad’s Development and Application of Biomarkers rationalizes the current enthusiasm for biomarkers with the use of well-established clinical laboratory analytes in clinical medicine. Highly respected for his work as both a classical protein scientist and as a pioneer in proteomics, Dr. Lundblad catalogs various biomarkers recognized in clinical medicine and, where possible, matches the expectations for advances in screening technologies with the realities of statistical analysis. More specifically, this important reference: Details an extensive list of biomarkers for various stages of a number of cancer types including ovarian, pancreatic, prostate, and breast cancer Looks at how proteomics is used for the discovery and validation of biomarkers Explores the use of microarray technology, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, and computational bioinformatic approaches for the discovery and use of biomarkers Examines the use of cells and cell fragments as more complex biomarkers Organizes a host of significant biomarkers and essential research by type and use in a series of readily accessible tables Throughout this volume, Dr. Lundblad encourages consideration of biomarkers more as a concept than as laboratory analytes, emphasizing the relation between the discovery of a biomarker and the biology underlying its production. Ultimately, it is a thorough understanding of that underlying biology that will lead to the development of assays that are robust and reproducible, as well as clinically significant.
As the definitive reference for clinical chemistry, Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, 5th Edition offers the most current and authoritative guidance on selecting, performing, and evaluating results of new and established laboratory tests. Up-to-date encyclopedic coverage details everything you need to know, including: analytical criteria for the medical usefulness of laboratory procedures; new approaches for establishing reference ranges; variables that affect tests and results; the impact of modern analytical tools on lab management and costs; and applications of statistical methods. In addition to updated content throughout, this two-color edition also features a new chapter on hemostasis and the latest advances in molecular diagnostics. Section on Molecular Diagnostics and Genetics contains nine expanded chapters that focus on emerging issues and techniques, written by experts in field, including Y.M. Dennis Lo, Rossa W.K. Chiu, Carl Wittwer, Noriko Kusukawa, Cindy Vnencak-Jones, Thomas Williams, Victor Weedn, Malek Kamoun, Howard Baum, Angela Caliendo, Aaron Bossler, Gwendolyn McMillin, and Kojo S.J. Elenitoba-Johnson. Highly-respected author team includes three editors who are well known in the clinical chemistry world. Reference values in the appendix give you one location for comparing and evaluating test results. NEW! Two-color design throughout highlights important features, illustrations, and content for a quick reference. NEW! Chapter on hemostasis provides you with all the information you need to accurately conduct this type of clinical testing. NEW! Six associate editors, Ann Gronowski, W. Greg Miller, Michael Oellerich, Francois Rousseau, Mitchell Scott, and Karl Voelkerding, lend even more expertise and insight to the reference. NEW! Reorganized chapters ensure that only the most current information is included.
Extracellular nucleic acids have recently emerged as important players in the fields of biology and the medical sciences. In the last several years, extracellular nucleic acids have been shown to be involved in not only microbial evolution as genetic elements but also to have structural roles in bacterial communities, such as biofilms. Circulating DNA and RNA have been found in human blood and expected to be useful as non-invasive markers for the diagnosis of several diseases. In addition, extracellular nucleic acids have attracted attention as active modulators of the immune system of higher organisms, including humans. This book covers nearly all of the newly developing fields related to extracellular nucleic acids, including those of basic biology, ecology and the medical sciences, and provides readers with the latest knowledge on them.
88 short papers originating from the 12th International Symposium on Intracranial Pressure and Brain Monitoring held in August 2004 in Hong Kong present experimental as well as clinical research data on invasive and non-invasive intracranial pressure and brain biochemistry monitoring. The papers have undergone a peer-reviewing and are organized in nine sections: ICP management in head injury, neurochemical monitoring, intracranial hypertension, neuroimaging, hydrocephalus, clinical trails, experimental studies, brain compliance and biophysics.
Neonatal-perinatal medicine has a strong history of evidence based practice but unfortunately there remain many areas of uncertainty and unproven hypotheses and treatments that may harm our highly vulnerable patients. When new ideas are introduced into the labor and delivery room or the NICU we have to evaluate these procedures and therapies before they become accepted as standards of care. We need to learn from the past lessons of grey baby syndrome and chloramphenicol and of kernicterus and sulfonamide antibiotics where therapeutic good intentions actually did more harm than good and increased the mortality rate of premature babies in the NICU.This proposed edition addresses a broad range of current topics in perinatal neonatal practice. The AAP has just issued new guidelines for the approach to a neonate exposed to maternal genital herpes virus infection. The recommendations were not evidence based and are highly controversial as well as confusing. These topics are addressed in a scholarly and objective manner to both address the controversy and help the practitioner make informed decisions.
The enormity of the global healthcare costs vical. One-fifth of all cancers worldwide as a result of cancer infliction cannot be are caused by a chronic infection, for overemphasized. There are more than 100 example, human papilloma virus (HPV) types of cancers; any part of the body can causes cervical cancer and hepatitis B be affected. More than 11 million people virus (HBV) causes liver cancer. Tobacco are diagnosed with cancer every year, and use is the most common preventable cause it is estimated that there will be 16 mil- of cancer in the world. Approximately, lion new cases per year by the year 2020. 168,000 cancer deaths are expected to be In 2005, 7. 6 million people died of can- caused by tobacco use. Approximately, cer, that is, 13% of the 58 million deaths 40% of cancer could be prevented, mainly worldwide. It is estimated that 9 million by not using tobacco, having a healthy people will die from cancer worldwide in diet, being physically active, preventing 2015 and 11. 4 million will die in 2030. infections that may cause cancer, reduc- More than 70% of all cancer deaths occur ing exposure to sunlight, and avoidance of in low and middle income countries. excessive alcohol consumption and stress Five major cancer causing overall mor- (anger). A third of cancers could be cured talities per year worldwide are (WHO): if detected early and treated adequately. It is well established that scientific 1. Lung: 1.
This volume represents a diverse collection of readily reproducible methods for use in cancer detection. Highlights include FISH-based methodologies currently used in the diagnosis of solid tumors, the molecular diagnosis of genetic abnormalities by DNA array technologies-including sequence-specific oligonucleotide arrays and CGH arrays-and methodologies directed at the detection of epigenetic events and at quantitative gene expression.
Avery’s Diseases of the Newborn, edited by Christine A. Gleason and Sherin U. Devaskar, is a practical, clinical reference for diagnosing and managing of all the important diseases affecting newborns. Thoroughly revised by a team of new editors, this edition provides new perspectives and updated coverage of genetics, nutrition, respiratory conditions, MRSA, neonatal pain, cardiovascular fetal interventions, care of the late preterm infant, and more. This authoritative reference is ideal as a clinical resource or subspecialty review tool. Treat newborns effectively with focused coverage of diagnosis and management, including pertinent developmental physiology and the pathogenesis of neonatal problems. Meet every challenge you face in neonatology with Avery’s authoritative, comprehensive clinical resource and subspecialty review tool. Navigate quickly and easily with extensive cross-referencing throughout the organ-related sections. Stay current with coverage of hot topics including MRSA, neonatal pain, cardiovascular fetal interventions, care of the late preterm infant, and the developing intestinal microbiome. Tap into the fresh perspectives of new editors who provide extensive updates throughout, particularly on genetic and respiratory disorders. Apply the latest nutritional findings with thorough discussions of this valuable information in the more comprehensive nutrition section. Master the fundamentals of neonatology through the greater emphasis on developmental biology and pathobiology.

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