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There has been a substantial increase in the number of patients with end-stage renal disease world-wide over the last few decades. In Australia, over 2400 patients with end-stage renal disease started renal replacement therapy in 2011 with nearly 11,000 patients currently receiving dialysis treatment at the end of 2011. According to Kidney Health Australia, the costs of treating end-stage kidney disease from 2009 to 2020 is estimated to be around $12 billion, highlighting the fact that kidney disease is a major financial burden to the community. Kidney transplantation confers a survival benefit in patients with end-stage renal disease but transplantation has become increasingly more complex over the last decade. With the greater understanding of transplant immunology along with the introduction of more potent induction and maintenance immuno-suppression, clinicians are now in a better position to more accurately stratify each transplant candidates immunological risk as well as the ability to safely transplant high-immunological risk transplant candidates. This book covers all major aspects of kidney transplantation and was put together with the hope of providing the readers with in-depth and current knowledge of important aspects of kidney transplantation, including donor and recipient assessments, innovative surgical techniques and understanding of surgical complications, the evolution of immunological techniques to identify anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies, the management and preparation of high-risk transplant candidates for transplantation as well as the management of longer-term complications after kidney transplantation.