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In recent years, population economics has become increasingly popular in both economic and policy analysis. For the inquiry into the long term development of an economy, the interaction between demographic change and economic activity cannot be neglected without omitting major aspects of the problems. This volume helps to further developments in theoretical and applied demographical economics covering the issues of demographic change and economic development. The interaction between demographic change and economic development in the long run is one central issue. One conjecture is that it is mainly the relative population pressure which controls the pace of economic development. However, econometric evidence presented in the book does not support this hypothesis. Other papers deal with the relationships between fertility and business cycle fluctuations, the timing of births, the efficiency in intergenerational transfers, the role of open economies for the population issue, historical perspectives of demographic change in Hungary and an outline of recent developments of applied modelling using input-output models, programming models or econometric techniques.