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Before the early 19th century, European ideas of crime and punishment tended to involve very public displays of the power of the monarch and the power of the state against the offending individual. Nowhere was this tendency more evident than in the spectacle of public executions. Those convicted of murder, piracy, counterfeiting, or other notable capital crimes would be taken to a public place for hanging or decapitation, and certain kinds of crimes warranted particularly gruesome punishments. In Discipline and Punish, social theorist Michel Foucault directly confronts and challenges a number of existing ideas surrounding the prison reforms of the late 1700s and early 1800s, and even into the twentieth century. By looking at the evolution of justice systems (focusing primarily on France), he suggests that the shift away from public executions and towards the idea of incarceration and reform within prison walls was a means of reframing the image of the power of society over the individual. Public executions often had the effect of making a criminal into a public martyr, and the ballads and broadsides printed for the common people did less to condemn the crime and more to glorify the criminal. By shifting the focus of justice into the prison and out of the public eye, authorities would have more direct control over the lives of those who had violated the norms of society.
Diachron-disziplinenübergreifende Konzepte zur Materiellen Kultur.
Leading the debate on the domestic effect of the growing influence of international adjudication, this invaluable text examines Serbia and Croatia’s erratic record of compliance with the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY). Since the demise of the Milosevic and Tudjman regimes, Serbian and Croatian governments have been inconsistent in cooperating with the ICTY, despite the conditions of EU membership and US financial incentives. This study reconstructs events before, during and after extradition to build up a picture of the complex politics involved in ICTY relations, and provides a conceptual framework to study compliance in international relations and law. Through this analysis, a historical tracing of varied factors of political influence and a conceptualization of compliance is provided, resulting in a rich interdisciplinary work embracing political science, international relations and social theory. By scrutinizing the social meanings and political practices which become attached to prescribed norms in compliance processes, this book provides a highly-relevant insight into contemporary meanings of ‘compliance’. Politics of International Law and Compliance will be of interest to students and scholars of politics, international relations and international law, and European politics.
Why do politicians and civil servants commission research and what use do they make of it in policymaking? The received wisdom is that research contributes to improving government policy. Christina Boswell challenges this view, arguing that policymakers are just as likely to value expert knowledge for two alternative reasons: as a way of lending authority to their preferences; or to signal their capacity to make sound decisions. Boswell develops a compelling new theory of the role of knowledge in policy, showing how policymakers use research to establish authority in contentious and risky areas of policy. She illustrates her argument with an analysis of European immigration policies, charting the ways in which expertise becomes a resource for lending credibility to controversial claims, underpinning high-risk decisions or bolstering the credibility of government agencies.
This narrative and empirical analysis investigates Hilary's claim that in his day they would not have left a man behind to die. The authors examine over 60 years of Himalayan climbing data and stories in order to test the changes in cooperation in this extreme life and death environment.
This text, specifically for AQA specifications, is designed to be easy and encouraging for students to use. The book contains updated material and activities together with a new chapter on study skills. It also indicates clearly where activities meet the new evidence requirements for key skills.
We all have a body, but how does it impact upon our day to day life? This book sets out to explore how ordinary women, men and children talk about their bodies, through four central themes:- * physical and emotional bodies * illness and disability * gender * ageing. A coherent collection of such empirical research, The Body in Everyday Life provides an accessible introduction to the sociology of the body, a field previously dominated by theoretical or philosophical accounts.

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