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Health inequalities blight lives, generate enormous costs, and exist everywhere. This book is the definitive all-in-one guide for anyone who wishes to learn about, commission, and use distributional cost-effectiveness analysis to promote both equity and efficiency in health and healthcare.
Global health is at a crossroads. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development has come with ambitious targets for health and health services worldwide. To reach these targets, many more billions of dollars need to be spent on health. However, development assistance for health has plateaued and domestic funding on health in most countries is growing at rates too low to close the financing gap. National and international decision-makers face tough choices about how scarce health care resources should be spent. Should additional funds be spent on primary prevention of stroke, treating childhood cancer, or expanding treatment for HIV/AIDS? Should health coverage decisions take into account the effects of illness on productivity, household finances, and children's educational attainment, or just focus on health outcomes? Does age matter for priority setting or should it be ignored? Are health gains far in the future less important than gains in the present? Should higher priority be given to people who are sicker or poorer? Global Health Priority-Setting provides a framework for how to think about evidence-based priority-setting in health. Over 18 chapters, ethicists, philosophers, economists, policy-makers, and clinicians from around the world assess the state of current practice in national and global priority setting, describe new tools and methodologies to address establishing global health priorities, and tackle the most important ethical questions that decision-makers must consider in allocating health resources.
This is a four volume collection of 78 articles on health economics. Each volume consists of two parts. Volume I: health and its value; determinants of individual health (other than health care and health insurance) and the health of populations. Volume II: demand for health and health care; supply of health services. Volume III: health insurance; market analysis. Volume IV: cost-effectiveness, cost-utility and cost-benefit analysis; efficiency and distributional aspects of health policy.
This book offers a self-contained review of the theoretical and practical basis of colorectal cancer screening. Colorectal cancer is currently the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and represents a significant burden for both public health and health care systems. However, colorectal cancer deaths can be prevented using effective screening, and many countries and regions have launched population colorectal cancer screening programs. This book covers various essential aspects of colorectal cancer screening, including the epidemiology of colorectal cancer, the various screening and diagnostic tests or exams, quality issues in colorectal cancer screening, necessary infrastructures, the evaluation of effectiveness, and economic appraisals of screening programs. Focusing on organized screening, in which various quality indicators can easily monitored and effectiveness is more likely to be evaluated, it discusses the basics of screening theory and the natural history of colorectal neoplasms, to help readers understand the rationale behind cancer screening. Lastly, it features international consensus and guidelines on colorectal cancer screening to highlight the current trends in the field. This comprehensive book on recent technological developments and conceptual advances in colorectal cancer screening is a valuable resource for public health workers and clinicians alike.
This book disentangles the issues in connection with the advancement of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and its interface with health policy. It highlights the factors that should shape its progress in the near future. Interdisciplinary and critical views from a number of professionals are put together in a prescient order to cast some light and make recommendations as to the next steps HTA should take to be fit for purpose. A wealth of documents dealing with HTA have been published over the last three decades. HTA allegedly is one of the bedrocks of regulation and medical decision making. However, counter vailing visions contend that geographical variations in the role that HTA is actually playing within countries pinpoints specific room for improvement. Given our social preferences, cherry-picking HTA’s features and successes over the last decades moves it away from its possibility frontier. Some of the most noteworthy hindrances that HTA faces, in several countries, to making headway towards its consolidation as an efficient tool for regulation and decision making are as follows: insufficient resources, delays in assessment, inadequate priority setting, regulatory capture, public distrust, actual influence on regulatory decisions, the need for strengthening international cooperation and harmony, the lack of sound and consistent assessments of diagnostic tests, medical devices and surgical innovations and limited dissemination. Time has come for HTA to take a renewed stand. There is a pressing need to submit HTA to in-depth critical scrutiny.
Written as an introduction to cost-benefit analysis for undergraduate economics majors. Also, can be used in specific graduate professional programs in public policy, business, public administration, etc. Numerous up-to-date illustrations and examples show students how theories and techniques are applied to real-world situations. Provides a practical orientation and introduction to cost-benefit analysis through problem solving.
This Handbook provides an authoritative overview of current research in the field of cost-benefit analysis and is designed as a starting point for those interested in undertaking advanced research. The Handbook contains major contributions to the development of the field, focussing on standard microeconomic policy evaluations, the relatively neglected area of macroeconomic policy and its integration into a formal CBA framework, and dynamic considerations in CBAPresenting insights from many influential thinkers, and edited by a leading academic in the field, this comprehensive work will prove an invaluable reference tool for economists, researchers and scholars.
The techniques and methods of project appraisal in developing countries have been considerably expanded and refined since they were first introduced in the late 1960s. This up-to-date and authoritative survey volume demonstrates the ways in which cost-benefit analysis has developed in response to changes in economic circumstances and conditions over the past three decades. An international group of academic and professional economists covers areas including problems in the practical application of cost-benefit techniques by international agencies, the treatment of income distribution, discounting, the effects method, the logical framework as a complement to project appraisal, aid tying, risk criteria in decision making, benefit valuation in the water sector, the appraisal of technical assistance projects, privatization in transition economies and shadow pricing in transition economies. Professor Kirkpatrick and Professor Weiss have prepared an insightful overview essay introducing the broad selection of work presented in this volume.
Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) holds a prominent place among the techniques of public policy analysis. Exposure to the fundamental issues surrounding the use of CBA and examples of its practical application have value to current and future practitioners of policy analysis as well as to researchers in the policy sciences. This volume seeks to facilitate such exposure by drawing together into a convenient collection the fine articles on CBA and its application that have appeared in the Journal of Policy Analysis and Management (JPAM).
The purpose of economic evaluations in healthcare is to affect decision making. So how do you determine the best use of scarce resources, in terms of benefits gained from expenditures? The purpose of this book is to review the methods of economic evaluation and how they may be used optimally, and with practical results. It includes review articles on familiar analytical tools, opinion papers on areas of contention, and guidelines on how to apply and analyse economics tools, methods and models.
Covers the methods and strategies of evaluation as well as the special evaluation requirements of specific research programs
The aim of Cost-Benefit Analysis for Developing Countries is to interpret, expand and evaluate the principles of project appraisal using the approach recommended by the World Bank. Robert Brent challenges a number of their findings, particularly through the inclusion of the 'numbers effect', the number of people affected by a development project, as a separate social objective. The book is based on a combination of sound economic theory and extensive empirical research, and case studies are used throughout to illustrate the theory. The author analyses, from an applied perspective, the most recent developments in project appraisal. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Developing Countries will be essential reading for students with an interest in development economics, development studies, public policy and comparative economic systems as well as policy makers and practitioners in international organizations and developing countries.

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