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Throughout the 16th Century, the Spanish had an aura of invincibility. They controlled a vast colonial empire that stretched across the Americas and the Pacific, and held considerable territories in Europe, centring on the so-called 'Spanish Road'. The Dutch War of Independence (also known as the 80 Years' War) was a major challenge to their dominance. The Dutch army created by Maurice of Nassau used innovative new tactics and training to take the fight to Spain and in so doing created a model that would be followed by European armies for generations to come. The second in a two-part series on the Dutch armies of the 80 Years' War, focuses on the cavalry, artillery and engineers of the evolving armies created by Maurice of Nassau. Using specially commissioned artwork and photographs of historical artefacts, it shows how the Dutch cavalry arm, artillery, and conduct of siege warfare contributed to the long struggle against the might of the Spanish Empire.
The tiny new state of the United Provinces of the Netherlands won its independence from the mighty Spanish empire by fighting and winning the Eighty Years' War, from 1568 and 1648. In this long conflict, warfare on water played a much bigger role in determining the ultimate victor. On the high seas the fleet carved out a new empire, growing national income to such levels that it could continue the costly war for independence. Yet it was in coastal and inland waters that the most decisive battles were fought. Arguably the most decisive Spanish siege (Leiden, 1574) was broken by a fleet sailing to the rescue across flooded polders, and the battle of Nieuwpoort in 1600, the largest successful invasion fleet before World War II, was one of the most decisive battle in western history. Using detailed full colour artwork, this book shows how the Dutch navies fought worldwide in their war of independence, from Brazil to Indonesia, and from the Low Countries to Angola.
The origins of the telescope have been discussed and debated since shortly after the instrument's appearance in The Hague in 1608. Civic and national pride have led local dignitaries, popular writers, and numerous scholars to search the archives and to construct sharply divergent histories. Did the honor of the invention belong to the Dutch, to the Italians, to the English, or to the Spanish? And if the city of Middelburg in the Netherlands was, in fact, the cradle of the instrument, was the "true inventor" Hans Lipperhey or his rival Zacharias Jansen? Or was the instrument there before anyone knew it? Over the past several decades, a group of historians and scientists have sought out new documents, re-examined familiar ones, and tested early lenses and telescopes. This volume contains the proceedings of a symposium held in Middelburg in September 2008 to mark 400 years of the telescope. The essays in it, taken as a whole, present a new and convincing account of the origins of the instrument that changed mankind's vision of the universe.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 76. Chapters: Dano-Swedish War (1658-1660), Dutch-Portuguese War, Eighty Years' War, Franco-Dutch War, Kettle War, Khoikhoi-Dutch Wars, Malayan-Portuguese War, Nine Years' War, Portuguese Restoration War, Scanian War, Three Hundred and Thirty Five Years' War, War of the Julich Succession, War of the Quadruple Alliance, War of the Spanish Succession. Excerpt: The Eighty Years' War, or Dutch War of Independence, (1568-1648), began as a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces against Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands. After the initial stages, Philip II deployed his armies and regained control over most of the rebelling provinces. However, under the leadership of the exiled William of Orange, the northern provinces continued their resistance and managed to oust the Habsburg armies, and established the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. The subsequent war continued, although the heartland of the republic was no longer threatened. The war ended in 1648 with the Peace of Munster, when the Dutch Republic was recognised as an independent country. In the decades leading to the war, the Dutch had become increasingly discontented with Habsburg rule. A major cause of Dutch discontent was the heavy level of taxation the population was required to pay, while support and guidance from the government was hampered by the size of the empire. At that time the Seventeen Provinces were known in the Habsburg empire as De landen van herwaarts over, and in French Les pays de par deca ("those lands around there"). In practice this meant that the Dutch provinces were being continually criticized for acting without permission from the throne, while the latter was not practical since any request for permission sent to the throne would take at least four weeks for a response to return. This unrest was further amplified...
In War, Entrepreneurs and the State, leading authors on the topic of military logistics provide cutting-edge insights into the role of the entrepreneur in making war and building states in Europe and the Mediterranean between 1300 and 1800.

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