Introduction to mathematical theory of multistage decision processes takes a "functional equation" approach. Topics include existence and uniqueness theorems, optimal inventory equation, bottleneck problems, multistage games, Markovian decision processes, and more. 1957 edition.
This book provides a practical introduction to computationally solving discrete optimization problems using dynamic programming. From the examples presented, readers should more easily be able to formulate dynamic programming solutions to their own problems of interest. We also provide and describe the design, implementation, and use of a software tool that has been used to numerically solve all of the problems presented earlier in the book.
I wanted to compute 80th term of the Fibonacci series. I wrote the rampant recursive function, int fib(int n){ return (1==n || 2==n) ? 1 : fib(n-1) + fib(n-2); } and waited for the result. I wait… and wait… and wait… With an 8GB RAM and an Intel i5 CPU, why is it taking so long? I terminated the process and tried computing the 40th term. It took about a second. I put a check and was shocked to find that the above recursive function was called 204,668,309 times while computing the 40th term. More than 200 million times? Is it reporting function calls or scam of some government? The Dynamic Programming solution computes 100th Fibonacci term in less than fraction of a second, with a single function call, taking linear time and constant extra memory. A recursive solution, usually, neither pass all test cases in a coding competition, nor does it impress the interviewer in an interview of company like Google, Microsoft, etc. The most difficult questions asked in competitions and interviews, are from dynamic programming. This book takes Dynamic Programming head-on. It first explain the concepts with simple examples and then deep dives into complex DP problems.
Dynamic programming is a powerful method for solving optimization problems, but has a number of drawbacks that limit its use to solving problems of very low dimension. To overcome these limitations, author Rein Luus suggested using it in an iterative fashion. Although this method required vast computer resources, modifications to his original schem
Become Dynamic Programming Master in 7 days Dynamic Programming is one of the most important algorithmic domains and is equally challenging. With practice and correct way of thinking, you can master it easily. If a problem takes O(2^N) time to search a solution among possible solutions, Dynamic Programming has the potential to reduce it to O(N) or polynomial time thereby reducing the search space. We will attempt one problem every day in this week and analyze the problem deeply. Our schedule: • Day 1: Introduction + Longest Increasing Subsequence • Day 2: 2D version of Day 1 problems • Day 3: Dynamic Programming on Strings • Day 4: Modified version of Day 3 problems • Day 5: Dynamic Programming for String patterns (Longest Palindromic Substring) • Day 6: Modified version of Day 4 problems • Day 7: 2 conditions on 1 data point On following this routine sincerely, you will get a strong hold on Dynamic Programming and will be able to attempt interview and real-life problems easily. #7daysOfAlgo: a 7-day investment to Algorithmic mastery.
A complete resource to Approximate Dynamic Programming (ADP), including on-line simulation code Provides a tutorial that readers can use to start implementing the learning algorithms provided in the book Includes ideas, directions, and recent results on current research issues and addresses applications where ADP has been successfully implemented The contributors are leading researchers in the field
Incorporating a number of the author’s recent ideas and examples, Dynamic Programming: Foundations and Principles, Second Edition presents a comprehensive and rigorous treatment of dynamic programming. The author emphasizes the crucial role that modeling plays in understanding this area. He also shows how Dijkstra’s algorithm is an excellent example of a dynamic programming algorithm, despite the impression given by the computer science literature. New to the Second Edition Expanded discussions of sequential decision models and the role of the state variable in modeling A new chapter on forward dynamic programming models A new chapter on the Push method that gives a dynamic programming perspective on Dijkstra’s algorithm for the shortest path problem A new appendix on the Corridor method Taking into account recent developments in dynamic programming, this edition continues to provide a systematic, formal outline of Bellman’s approach to dynamic programming. It looks at dynamic programming as a problem-solving methodology, identifying its constituent components and explaining its theoretical basis for tackling problems.
Humans interact with and are part of the mysterious processes of nature. Inevitably they have to discover how to manage the environment for their long-term survival and benefit. To do this successfully means learning something about the dynamics of natural processes, and then using the knowledge to work with the forces of nature for some desired outcome. These are intriguing and challenging tasks. This book describes a technique which has much to offer in attempting to achieve the latter task. A knowledge of dynamic programming is useful for anyone interested in the optimal management of agricultural and natural resources for two reasons. First, resource management problems are often problems of dynamic optimization. The dynamic programming approach offers insights into the economics of dynamic optimization which can be explained much more simply than can other approaches. Conditions for the optimal management of a resource can be derived using the logic of dynamic programming, taking as a starting point the usual economic definition of the value of a resource which is optimally managed through time. This is set out in Chapter I for a general resource problem with the minimum of mathematics. The results are related to the discrete maximum principle of control theory. In subsequent chapters dynamic programming arguments are used to derive optimality conditions for particular resources.
Dynamic Programming in Economics is an outgrowth of a course intended for students in the first year PhD program and for researchers in Macroeconomics Dynamics. It can be used by students and researchers in Mathematics as well as in Economics. The purpose of Dynamic Programming in Economics is twofold: (a) to provide a rigorous, but not too complicated, treatment of optimal growth models in infinite discrete time horizon, (b) to train the reader to the use of optimal growth models and hence to help him to go further in his research. We are convinced that there is a place for a book which stays somewhere between the "minimum tool kit" and specialized monographs leading to the frontiers of research on optimal growth.
Nonserial Dynamic Programming
Introduction to sequential decision processes covers use of dynamic programming in studying models of resource allocation, methods for approximating solutions of control problems in continuous time, production control, more. 1982 edition.
Introduction to Dynamic Programming introduces the reader to dynamic programming and presents the underlying mathematical ideas and results, as well as the application of these ideas to various problem areas. A large number of solved practical problems and computational examples are included to clarify the way dynamic programming is used to solve problems. A consistent notation is applied throughout the text for the expression of quantities such as state variables and decision variables. This monograph consists of 10 chapters and opens with an overview of dynamic programming as a particular approach to optimization, along with the basic components of any mathematical optimization model. The following chapters discuss the application of dynamic programming to variational problems; functional equations and the principle of optimality; reduction of state dimensionality and approximations; and stochastic processes and the calculus of variations. The final chapter looks at several actual applications of dynamic programming to practical problems, such as animal feedlot optimization and optimal scheduling of excess cash investment. This book should be suitable for self-study or for use as a text in a one-semester course on dynamic programming at the senior or first-year, graduate level for students of mathematics, statistics, operations research, economics, business, industrial engineering, or other engineering fields.
This work discusses the value of dynamic programming as a method of optimization for the sequential phenomena encountered in economic studies or in advanced technological programs such as those associated with space flights. The dynamic programs which are considered are defined for a deterministic universe, or one with probabilities; both categories are of equal importance in the practice of operations research or of scientific management.
Dynamic Programming is the analysis of multistage decision in the sequential mode. It is now widely recognized as a tool of great versatility and power, and is applied to an increasing extent in all phases of economic analysis, operations research, technology, and also in mathematical theory itself. In economics and operations research its impact may someday rival that of linear programming. The importance of this field is made apparent through a growing number of publications. Foremost among these is the pioneering work of Bellman. It was he who originated the basic ideas, formulated the principle of optimality, recognized its power, coined the terminology, and developed many of the present applications. Since then mathe maticians, statisticians, operations researchers, and economists have come in, laying more rigorous foundations [KARLIN, BLACKWELL], and developing in depth such application as to the control of stochastic processes [HoWARD, JEWELL]. The field of inventory control has almost split off as an independent branch of Dynamic Programming on which a great deal of effort has been expended [ARRoW, KARLIN, SCARF], [WIDTIN] , [WAGNER]. Dynamic Programming is also playing an in creasing role in modem mathematical control theory [BELLMAN, Adap tive Control Processes (1961)]. Some of the most exciting work is going on in adaptive programming which is closely related to sequential statistical analysis, particularly in its Bayesian form. In this monograph the reader is introduced to the basic ideas of Dynamic Programming.