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The Hanseatic League was a commercial and defensive federation of merchant guilds based in harbour towns along the North Sea and Baltic coasts of what are now Germany and her neighbours, which eventually dominated maritime trade in Northern Europe and spread its influence much further afield. The League was formed to protect the economic and political interests of member cities throughout a vast and complex trading network. The League continued to operate well into the 17th century, but its golden age was between c.1200 and c.1500; thereafter it failed to take full advantage of the wave of maritime exploration to the west, south and east of Europe. During its 300 years of dominance the League's large ships – called 'cogs' – were at the forefront of maritime technology, were early users of cannon, and were manned by strong fighting crews to defend them from pirates in both open-sea and river warfare. The home cities raised their own armies for mutual defence, and their riches both allowed them, and required them, to invest in fortifications and gunpowder weapons, since as very attractive targets they were subjected to sieges at various times.
From the Viking invasions to the Crusades to the Hundred Years War, wars were crucial agents of change in medieval Europe. They fostered many economic and political changes. They also affected the science, technology, religion, and culture of the parties involved. This two-volume encyclopedia examines all aspects of warfare and military technology in medieval times. Featuring the latest research from the leading experts in medieval military history, the set provides an exhaustive and accurate view of how and why wars were waged throughout Europe, the Byzantine Empire, and the Crusader States from circa 500 CE to circa 1500. Although many reference works have been published in medieval history, this is the first and only encyclopedia to focus exclusively on medieval warfare, offering unique insight into the subject by addressing developments in military technology across the period with articles on topics such as gunpowder and shields. The encyclopedia will appeal to scholars and readers of all levels interested in military history and in the medieval world.
Butler, Sir Geoffrey and Simon Maccoby. The Development of International Law. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1928. xxxv, 566 pp. Reprinted 2003 by The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. ISBN 1-58477-215-8. Cloth. $70. * Writing in the Yale Law Review, J.P. Bullington observes that "[t]he most striking feature about this work is the method of treatment--quite the most effective which has yet been employed in dealing with the subject. Believing that the changes in international law have been the reflection of changes in the political theory and practice of states, the author has divided his work into three major periods--the Age of the Prince, the Age of the Judge, and the Age of the Concert... Based on a wide knowledge of history filtered through an objective and realistic brain, this book must take its place as one of the most valuable contributions to the history of international law." Yale Law Review 38:843 quoted in Marke, A Catalogue of the Law Collection at New York University, (1953) 566.
This study examines conflicts arising from the dual processes of Europeanization and post-socialist transformations, from gaining independence in 1991 to facing the current economic crisis. Through an in-depth comparison of Estonia and Slovenia over time, it shows how elite actors within these two very different welfare capitalist states resisted EU pressures to change their cohesive and successful national models.
The only text to offer a regional survey of world urban development, this third edition has been fully revised and updated to include new chapter authors, new cities and regions, and an expanded art program. Focusing on the eleven major culture realms of the world, the volume examines each region's urban history, economy, and culture and society, and offers engaging case studies of major representative cities. Introductory and concluding chapters frame the regional discussion by summarizing world urban history and by looking to the future of urban development. Maps, graphs, tables, photos, color satellite images, recommended readings, web sites, and UN data on major cities offer rich additional resources for students. Visit our website for sample chapters!
By comparing and contrasting the EU to another union of States across the Atlantic, the United States, this text introduces readers to the historical, legal, economic, and political foundations of European integration, while focusing extensively on the effects of the EU on its own citizens and on the outside world.

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