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This tutorial or practical guide on seismic tomography is aimed at an audience familiar with basic seismology concepts and calculus. The intent is to provide the reader with a fundamental understanding of both seismic ray tomography and seismic diffraction tomography. Case studies illustrate processing method-ology, basic interpretation technique, and pitfalls. After reading through this presentation, one will have a greater understanding of and appreciation for seismic tomography articles found in the literature.
This book provides a practical guide to the basic essentials of earthquake engineering with a focus on seismic loading and structural design. Benefiting from the author’s extensive career in structural and earthquake engineering, dynamic analysis and lecturing, it is written from an industry perspective at a level suitable for graduate students. Fundamentals of Seismic Loading on Structures is organised into four major sections: introduction to earthquakes and related engineering problems, analysis, seismic loading, and design concepts. From a practical perspective, reviews linear and non-linear behaviour, introduces concepts of uniform hazard spectra, discusses loading provisions in design codes and examines soil-structure interaction issues, allowing the reader to quickly identify and implement information in a working environment. Discusses probabilistic methods that are widely employed in the assessment of seismic hazard, illustrating the use of Monte Carlo simulation with a number of worked examples. Summarises the latest developments in the field such as performance-based seismic engineering and advances in liquefaction research. “There are many books on earthquake engineering, but few are of direct use to the practising structural designer. This one, however, offers a new perspective, putting emphasis on the practical aspects of quantifying seismic loading, and explaining the importance of geotechnical effects during a major seismic event in readily understandable terms. The author has succeeded in marrying important seismological considerations with structural engineering practice, and this long-awaited book will find ready acceptance in the profession.” Professor Patrick J. Dowling CBE, DL, DSc, FIStructE, Hon MRIA, FIAE, FREng, FRS Chairman, British Association for the Advancement of Science Emeritus Professor and Retired Vice Chancellor, University of Surrey
A practical handbook for the petroleum geophysicist. Fundamental concepts are explained using heuristic descriptions of seismic modeling, deconvolution, depth migration, and tomography. Pitfalls in processing and contouring are described briefly. Applications include petroleum exploration of carbonate reefs, salt intrusions, and overthrust faults. The book includes past, present, and possible future developments in time-lapse seismology, borehole geophysics, multicomponent seismology, and integrated reservoir characterization.
This revised and updated second edition – now with two new chapters - is the only book to give a comprehensive overview of computer algorithms for image reconstruction. It covers the fundamentals of computerized tomography, including all the computational and mathematical procedures underlying data collection, image reconstruction and image display. Among the new topics covered are: spiral CT, fully 3D positron emission tomography, the linogram mode of backprojection, and state of the art 3D imaging results. It also includes two new chapters on comparative statistical evaluation of the 2D reconstruction algorithms and alternative approaches to image reconstruction.
This second edition of Fundamentals of Geophysics has been completely revised and updated, and is the ideal geophysics textbook for undergraduate students of geoscience with an introductory level of knowledge in physics and mathematics. It gives a comprehensive treatment of the fundamental principles of each major branch of geophysics, and presents geophysics within the wider context of plate tectonics, geodynamics and planetary science. Basic principles are explained with the aid of numerous figures and step-by-step mathematical treatments, and important geophysical results are illustrated with examples from the scientific literature. Text-boxes are used for auxiliary explanations and to handle topics of interest for more advanced students. This new edition also includes review questions at the end of each chapter to help assess the reader's understanding of the topics covered and quantitative exercises for more thorough evaluation. Solutions to the exercises and electronic copies of the figures are available at www.cambridge.org/9780521859028.
Methods to eonstruet images of an objeet from "projeetions" of x-rays, ultrasound or eleetromagnetie waves have found wide applieations in eleetron mieroseopy, diagnostie medicine and radio astronomy. Projeetions are measurable quantities that are a funetiona- usually involving a line integral - of physieal properties of an objeet. Convolutional methods, or iterative algorithms to solve large systems of linear equations are used to reeonstruet the objeet. In prineiple, there is no reasan why similar image reeonstruetions ean not be made with seismie waves. In praetiee, seismic tomography meets with a number of diffieulties, and it is not until the last deeade that imaging of transmitted seismie waves has found applicatian in the Earth sciences. The most important differenee between global seismie tomography and mare eonventional applieations in the laboratory is the faet that the seismologist is eonfronted with the lack of anything resembling a well-eontrolled experimental set-up. Apart from a few nuelear tests, it is not in our power to locate or time seismie events. Apart from a few seabattom seismographs, our sensors are located on land -and even there the availability of data depends on eultural and politieal factors. Even in exploratian seismics, praetieal faetors such as the east of an experiment put strong limitations on the eompleteness of the data set.
An Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes and Earth Structures is an introduction to seismology and its role in the earth sciences, and is written for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The fundamentals of seismic wave propagation are developed using a physical approach and then applied to show how refraction, reflection, and teleseismic techniques are used to study the structure and thus the composition and evolution of the earth. The book shows how seismic waves are used to study earthquakes and are integrated with other data to investigate the plate tectonic processes that cause earthquakes. Figures, examples, problems, and computer exercises teach students about seismology in a creative and intuitive manner. Necessary mathematical tools including vector and tensor analysis, matrix algebra, Fourier analysis, statistics of errors, signal processing, and data inversion are introduced with many relevant examples. The text also addresses the fundamentals of seismometry and applications of seismology to societal issues. Special attention is paid to help students visualize connections between different topics and view seismology as an integrated science. An Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, and Earth Structure gives an excellent overview for students of geophysics and tectonics, and provides a strong foundation for further studies in seismology. Multidisciplinary examples throughout the text - catering to students in varied disciplines (geology, mineralogy, petrology, physics, etc.). Most up to date book on the market - includes recent seismic events such as the 1999 Earthquakes in Turkey, Greece, and Taiwan). Chapter outlines - each chapter begins with an outline and a list of learning objectives to help students focus and study. Essential math review - an entire section reviews the essential math needed to understand seismology. This can be covered in class or left to students to review as needed. End of chapter problem sets - homework problems that cover the material presented in the chapter. Solutions to all odd numbered problem sets are listed in the back so that students can track their progress. Extensive References - classic references and more current references are listed at the end of each chapter. A set of instructor's resources containing downloadable versions of all the figures in the book, errata and answers to homework problems is available at: http://levee.wustl.edu/seismology/book/. Also available on this website are PowerPoint lecture slides corresponding to the first 5 chapters of the book.
The purpose of this book is to give a theoretical and practical introduction to seismic-while-drilling by using the drill-bit noise. This recent technology offers important products for geophysical control of drilling. It involves aspects typical of borehole seismics and of the drilling control surveying, hitherto the sole domain of mudlogging. For aspects related to the drill-bit source performance and borehole acoustics, the book attempts to provide a connection between experts working in geophysics and in drilling. There are different ways of thinking related to basic knowledge, operational procedures and precision in the observation of the physical quantities. The goal of the book is to help "build a bridge" between geophysicists involved in seismic while drilling - who may need to familiarize themselves with methods and procedures of drilling and drilling-rock mechanics - and drillers involved in geosteering and drilling of "smart wells" - who may have to familiarize themselves with seismic signals, wave resolution and radiation. For instance, an argument of common interest for drilling and seismic while drilling studies is the monitoring of the drill-string and bit vibrations. This volume contains a large number of real examples of SWD data analysis and applications.
The vertical seismic profile, acquired with an array of 3C receivers and either a single source or several arranged in a multi-component configuration, provides an ideal high fidelity calibration tool for seismic projects involved in the application of seismic anisotropy. This book catalogues the majority of specialized tools necessary to work with P-P, P-S and S-S data from such VSP surveys at the acquisition design, processing and interpretation stages. In particular, it discusses 3C, 4C, 6C and 9C VSP, marine and land surveys with near and multiple offsets (walkways), azimuths (walkarounds) or a combination of both. These are considered for TIH or TIV flavours of seismic anisotropy arising from cracks, fractures, sedimentary layering, and shales. The anisotropic adaptation of familiar seismic methods for velocity analysis and inversion, reflected amplitude interpretation, are given together with more multi-component specific algorithms based upon the principles dictated by the vector convolutional model. Thus, multi-component methods are described that provide tests and compensation for source or receiver vector fidelity, tool rotation correction, layer stripping, near-surface correction, wavefield separation, and the Alford rotation with its variants. The work will be of interest to geophysicists involved in research or the application of seismic anisotropy using multi-component seismic.
"Soils and rocks are complex natural geomaterials that exhibit a wide range in strength, stiffness, state of stress, structure, and flow characteristics. Geotechnical & Geophysical Site Characterization provides eleven keynote state-of-the-art papers, including the Mitchell Lecture. A total selection of 219 technical papers and theme reports address methods of site exploration related to ground exploration for civil engineering and construction works. These two volumes represent a collection of experience & knowledge regarding various methods of in-situ testing, geophysical techniques, innovative devices, improved interpretation algorithms, and statistical treatment of field data for the characterization of soils, rocks, and other geomaterials. The papers represent the written records and documented efforts from international experts from industry, academe, and government who participated in the Second International Conference on Site Characterization held in Porto, Portugal on September 20-22, 2004. Topics include the utilization of rotary drilling, sampling, and coring techniques. Of particular interest is the variety of in-situ tests, including standard penetration, cone penetration, flat dilatometer, pressuremeter, vane shear, piezocone, dynamic probes, and specialized tools, as well as geophysical approaches: resistivity surveys, surface waves, crosshole, downhole, electromagnetic conductivity, and ground penetrating radar. A careful and proper site evaluation is required in the analysis and design of new structures, construction monitoring, and forensic studies that require remediation. Many of the contributions relate to case studies of projects that involve shallow foundations, drilled shafts, pilings, slope stability, excavations, earth dams, tunnels, and mining. Several papers discuss a combined approach using multiple methods and/or complementary set of geotechnical & geophysical tests to ascertain the characteristics of the ground."--back cover.
In this interdisciplinary book, leading experts in underwater acoustics, seismology, acoustic medical imaging and non-destructive testing present basic concepts as well as the recent advances in imaging. The different subjects tackled show significant similarities.
This book seeks to explore seismic phenomena in elastic media and emphasizes the interdependence of mathematical formulation and physical meaning. The purpose of this title - which is intended for senior undergraduate and graduate students as well as scientists interested in quantitative seismology - is to use aspects of continuum mechanics, wave theory and ray theory to describe phenomena resulting from the propagation of waves. The book is divided into three parts: Elastic continua, Waves and rays, and Variational formulation of rays. In Part I, continuum mechanics are used to describe the material through which seismic waves propagate, and to formulate a system of equations to study the behaviour of such material. In Part II, these equations are used to identify the types of body waves propagating in elastic continua as well as to express their velocities and displacements in terms of the properties of these continua. To solve the equations of motion in anisotropic inhomogeneous continua, the high-frequency approximation is used and establishes the concept of a ray. In Part III, it is shown that in elastic continua a ray is tantamount to a trajectory along which a seismic signal propagates in accordance with the variational principle of stationary travel time.
requiring the adaptation of probabilistic maps to design ground motions; and (d) the generalization of design parameters to locations where there is little seismic history. Maximum displacements, velocities, and, based on the European Build ing Code EC8, design ground acceleration maps have thus been produced by ZivCic et al. for Slovenia, Marku§ic et al. for Croatia, Bus et al. for Hungary, and Radulian et al. for Romania. The last two contributions in the volume are dedicated to studies of local site effects that could affect the microzonation of large urban areas. Moldoveanu et al. employed a technique based on the modal summation and finite dif ferences to calculate the expected ground motion in the capital city of Bucha rest due to large intermediate-depth Vrancea earthquakes. Their results outline that the presence of alluvial sediments and the possible variation of event scenario require the use of all three components of motion for a reliable determination of the seismic input. The study of Marmureanu et al. , more limited in scope, offers a laboratory analysis of the attenuation effects for sur face layers. The authors confirm that seismic attenuation in sedimentary layers is a function of the strain levels induced by large earthquakes, and find that the quality factor is nearly constant over a relatively wide frequency range, between 7 and 100 Hz.
The developments in the field of ocean acoustics over recent years make this book an important reference for specialists in acoustics, oceanography, marine biology, and related fields. Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography also encourages a new generation of scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs to apply the modern methods of acoustical physics to probe the unknown sea. The book is an authoritative, modern text with examples and exercises. It contains techniques to solve the direct problems, solutions of inverse problems, and an extensive bibliography from the earliest use of sound in the sea to present references. Written by internationally recognized scientists, the book provides background to measure ocean parameters and processes, find life and objects in the sea, communicate underwater, and survey the boundaries of the sea. Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography explains principles of underwater sound propagation, and describes how both actively probing sonars and passively listening hydrophones can reveal what the eye cannot see over vast ranges of the turbid ocean. This book demonstrates how to use acoustical remote sensing, variations in sound transmission, in situ acoustical measurements, and computer and laboratory models to identify the physical and biological parameters and processes in the sea. * Offers an integrated, modern approach to passive and active underwater acoustics * Contains many examples of laboratory scale models of ocean-acoustic environments, as well as descriptions of experiments at sea * Covers remote sensing of marine life and the seafloor * Includes signal processing of ocean sounds, physical and biological noises at sea, and inversions * resents sound sources, receivers, and calibration * Explains high intensities; explosive waves, parametric sources, cavitation, shock waves, and streaming * Covers microbubbles from breaking waves, rainfall, dispersion, and attenuation * Describes sound propagation along ray paths and caustics * Presents sound transmissions and normal mode methods in ocean waveguides

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