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The use of biological sources such as microbes and plants can help in synthesizing nanoparticles in a reliable and eco-friendly way. The synthesis of nanoparticles by these natural sources is characterized by processes that take place near to ambient temperature and pressures and also near neutral pH. This edited volume authored by subject specialists, provides all the latest research and builds a database of bioreduction agents to various metal nanoparticles using different precursor systems. The book also highlights the different strategies such as simplicity, cost-effectiveness, environment-friendly and easily scalable, and includes parameters for controlling the size and shape of the materials developed from the various greener methods. In order to exploit the utmost potential metal nanoparticles synthesis from the different sources such as agricultural waste, flora and fauna, food waste, microbes and biopolymer systems, it is also crucial to recognize the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of production of nanoparticles and their characterization.
Nanotechnology is the application of science to control matter at the molecular level. It has become one of the most promising applied technologies in all areas of science. Nanoparticles have multi-functional properties and have created very interesting applications in various fields such as medicine, nutrition, bioenergy, agriculture and the environment. But the biogenic syntheses of monodispersed nanoparticles with specific sizes and shapes have been a challenge in biomaterial science. Nanoparticles are of great interest due to their extremely small size and large surface-to-volume ratio, which lead to both chemical and physical differences in their properties (e.g., mechanical properties, biological and sterical properties, catalytic activity, thermal and electrical conductivity, optical absorption and melting point) compared to bulk of the same chemical composition. Recently, however, synthesizing metal nanoparticles using green technology via microorganisms, plants, viruses, and so on, has been extensively studied and has become recognized as a green and efficient way for further exploiting biological systems as convenient nanofactories. Thus the biological synthesis of nanoparticles is increasingly regarded as a rapid, ecofriendly, and easily scaled-up technology. Today researchers are developing new techniques and materials using nanotechnology that may be suitable for plants to boost their native functions. Recently, biological nanoparticles were found to be more pharmacologically active than physico-chemically synthesized nanoparticles. Various applications of biosynthesized nanoparticles have been discovered, especially in the field of biomedical research, such as applications to specific delivery of drugs, use for tumor detection, angiogenesis, genetic disease and genetic disorder diagnosis, photoimaging, and photothermal therapy. Further, iron oxide nanoparticles have been applied to cancer therapy, hyperthermia, drug delivery, tissue repair, cell labeling, targeting and immunoassays, detoxification of biological fluids, magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetically responsive drug delivery therapy. Nanoparticle synthesis for plant byproducts for biomedical applications has vast potential. This book offers researchers in plant science and biomedicine the latest research and opportunity to develop new tools for the synthesis of environmentally friendly and cost-effective nanoparticles for applications in biomedicine as well as other various fields.
Green Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Nanoparticles shows how eco-friendly nanoparticles are engineered and used. In particular, metal nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and other categories of nanoparticles are discussed. The book outlines a range of methodologies and explores the appropriate use of each. Characterization methods include spectroscopic, microscopic and diffraction methods, but magnetic resonance methods are also included as they can be used to understand the mechanism of nanoparticle synthesis using organisms. Applications covered include targeted drug delivery, water purification and hydrogen generation. This is an important research resource for those wishing to learn more about how eco-efficient nanoparticles can best be used. Theoretical details and mathematical derivations are kept to a necessary minimum to suit the need of interdisciplinary audiences and those who may be relatively new to the field. Explores recent trends in growth, characterization, properties and applications of nanoparticles Gives readers an understanding on how they are applied through the use of case studies and examples Assesses the advantages and disadvantages of a variety of synthesis and characterization techniques for green nanoparticles in different situations
There are physical and chemical methods of synthesis of nanomaterials. But due to the damage caused by these methods to the environment there is a pressing need of green nanotechnology, which is a clean and eco-friendly technology for the development of nanomaterials. The present book includes green synthesis of nanoparticles by algae, diatoms and plants. The mechanism behind the synthesis of nanoparticles will also be discussed. The book would be a valuable resource for students, researchers and teachers of biology, chemistry, chemical technology, nanotechnology, microbial technology and those who are interested in green nanotechnology.
Nanotechnology is an emerging field of science. It has increased applications in diverse area for the development of new materials at nanoscale levels. Synthesis of nanoparticles using biological methods is referred as greener synthesis of nanoparticles. Green synthesis provides advancement over chemical and physical method as it is cost effective, environment friendly, and safe for human therapeutic use. Stingless bees are highly social (eusocial) insects which populated the tropical earth 65 million years ago longer than honey bees. Among the most common uses of stingless bee honey are to treat stomach disturbance, cough, tonsillitis, sore throat, stomach and intestinal ulcers, cold, disease of the mouth, mucus membrane, and as a wound dressing due to its antimicrobial activity. Stingless bees honey were used to for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Antimicrobial activity of the green synthesised nanoparticles were tested used agar diffusion method against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The results showed that stingless bee honey could be effectively used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticle. The synthesized silver nanoparticles shows antibacterial activity on both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. This biosynthesis of nanoparticles is cost efficient, pollutant free and simpler to synthesize.
Bachelor Thesis from the year 2013 in the subject Biology - Miscellaneous, grade: M.Sc., , course: Biotechnology, language: English, abstract: Research and analysis of nanoparticles (NPs) synthesis and their biological activities has been expanded significantly in the recent years. The agents used for nanoparticles (NPs) synthesis are of organic (mainly carbon) and inorganic (metal ions like silver and gold) origin (Singh et al., 2010). Among these, silver (Ag) is the most preferred NPs synthesis agent due to its reported use in medical field as best topical bactericides from ancient times (Lavanya et al., 2013). The stable silver nanoparticles had been synthesized by using soluble starch as both the reducing and stabilizing agents (Shrivastava et al., 2012). So the concern of scientific community shifted towards ecofriendly, natural and cheaper method of NPs synthesis by using microorganisms and plant extracts (Mohanpuria et al., 2008). The use of plant materials for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is most popular due to its potential biological activities, easy availability and faster rate of synthesis there by cutting the cost of NP's synthesis (Huang et al., 2007 and Salam et al., 2012). The nanoparticles had been clinically used for infection, vaccines and renal diseases (Malhotra et al., 2010). The plant extract of petals of herbal species like Punica granatum, Datura metel (Chandran et al., 2011) and stem extracts of Svensonia hyderobadensis (Linga et al., 2011) had been effectively used for AgNPs synthesis and investigated for their antimicrobial activities. Nanoparticles could be synthesized by various approaches like photochemical reactions in reverse micelles (Taleb et al., 1997), thermal decomposition (Esumi et al., 1990), sonochemical (Zhu et al., 2000) and microwave assisted process (Santosh et al., 2002 and Prasher et al., 2009). Nanocrystalline silver particles have found tremendous applications in the field of high sensitivity biomolecular detection and diagnostics (Schultz et al., 2000), antimicrobials and therapeutics (Rai and Yadav., 2009 and Elechiguerra et al., 2005) and micro-electronics (Gittins et al., 2000). Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. is an exotic species that can survive in degraded lands in Thai savanna (Badejo et al., 1998). Besides its high adaptability in degraded savanna areas, A. auriculiformis is known for its nitrogen fixation property (Sprent and Parsons, 2000) enriching macrofaunal composition (Mboukou-Kimbatsa et al., 1998), low allelopathic effects (Bernhard-Reversat et al., 1999) and ability to pump nutrients from the subsoil (Kang et al., 1993).
Document from the year 2017 in the subject Chemistry - Bio-chemistry, Mansoura University, language: English, abstract: Forty-two medicinal plants were collected depending on their availability on Egypt. These plant were extracted and screened for their activity towards green synthesis of AgNPs. A new modified method was used in order to screen large number of extracts in short time (high throughput screening). In this method, the synthesized nanoparticles were evaluated in using 96-well plate which is transparent to facilitate the color monitoring and easy to be read spectrophotometrically using microplate reader. The green synthesis activity by the different plant extracts was monitored and evaluated by color change and UV-Vis absorption at time intervals. Out of these 42 plants, only 3 plants viz.,Pyllanthusemblicafruits, Psidium guajava leaves and Lawsoniainermisleaves, showed high AgNPs synthetic activity. The most active plant extracts were further partitioned with ethyl acetate. The results showed that the EtOAc fraction of the three active plants showed superior AgNPs green synthesis over their remaining aqueous. Thus, chromatographic columns were used to isolate the active compounds from the EtOAc fraction of each plant. Metal nanoparticles synthesis is a leading topic of research in modern material science owing to their distinctive potential applications in the field of electronic, optoelectronic, information storage and Health care. Among the all noble metal nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles are one the main products in the field of nanotechnology which has acquired limitless attention due to their unique properties such as chemical stability, good conductivity, catalytic and most important antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activities. Nevertheless, there is still need for economic commercially viable as well as environmentally clean synthesis route to synthesize the silver nanoparticles.
This book, Green Nanotechnology - Overview and Further Prospects, is intended to provide an overview and practical examples of the use of nanomaterials in the new scientific challenges of the green nanotechnology world. We aimed to compile information from a diversity of sources into a single volume to give some real examples, extending the concept that green nanotechnology is far from being a scientific conundrum, and instead a real answer to some of the actual problems the whole planet is dealing with.
This book provides the state-of-the-art survey of green techniques in preparation of different classes of nanomaterials, with an emphasis on the use of renewable sources. Key topics covered include fabrication of nanomaterials using green techniques as well as their properties and applications, the use of renewable sources to obtain nanomaterials of different classes, from simple metal and metal oxide nanoparticles to complex bioinspired nanomaterials, economic contributions of nanotechnology to green and sustainable growth, and more. This is an ideal book for students, lecturers, researchers and engineers dealing with versatile (mainly chemical, biological, and medical) aspects of nanotechnology, including fabrication of nanomaterials using green techniques and their properties and applications.
There is an increasing commercial demand for nanoparticles due to their wide applicability in various areas such as electronics and medicine. In this research article, green synthesis method of nanoparticles was presented as an evolution from the nano biotechnology. It is a low cost, environment benign, non toxic and large scale up process. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Piper sarmentosum has been investigated. The influences of different concentration of Piper sarmentosum leaf extract and different silver ion concentration on the synthesis of nanoparticles were evaluated. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV–Vis spectroscopy, Fourier Transform-IR (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). By using the UV-Vis Spectrsocopy, the silver nanoparticles showedthe surface plasmon peak at 460 nm. FTIR analysis of this study show different stretches of bonds shown at different peaks; 3500 cm-1 N-H stretch, 1643 cm-1 C=C and 700 cm-1 O-H.The shape of silver nanoparticles was analysed using SEM at maginification x1000 and x20 000 and proved to be spherical in shape. The AgNPs formed were found to have enhanced antimicrobial properties and showed zone of inhibition against isolated bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi.) and fungus (Aspergillus niger). Based on the results obtained, it shows that the silver nanoparticles with 1 mM concentration were most efficient in antimicrobial activity. In conclusion, resources obtained from plants can be efficiently used in the production of AgNPs and could be utilized in various fields such as biomedical, nanotechnology etc. This green synthesis method has many advantages over the chemical method because it reduced the use of toxic metals in the synthesis process and it is a single step eco-friendly method.
Green Nanotechnology discusses the fundamental field of green nanotechnology and the major challenges associated with it. It also includes green synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of natural bentonite-supported copper nanoparticles and stem cell tracking by using iron oxide nanoparticles. This book also discusses about honey mediated green synthesis of nanoparticles as new era of safe nanotechnology, green preparation and spectroscopic characterization of plasmonic silver nanoparticles using fruits as reducing agents, epigallocatechin gallate nano-delivery systems for cancer therapy, the current trends in the green syntheses of titanium oxide nanoparticles and their applications, cofe2o4/carbon nanotube aerogels as high performance anodes for lithium ion batteries and medical applications of nanoparticles biosynthesized by fungi and yeast.
Soil borne diseases which are caused to various plants include a wide variety of soil microbes like fungi and bacteria, among which Fusarium wilt is one such disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum cubense in banana plants. Wilt disease or the panama disease of plant is among the most destructive disease of banana in the tropics and even the control methods like field sanitation, soil treatments and crop rotations have not been a long term control for this disease. An alternative method of treating Fusarium oxysporum was adopted by using various banana parts mainly its peel, pulp sap and its latex of varieties such as Robusta (B1) Musa acuminate Colla (AAA), Etha (B2) Musa x paradisiaca (AAB), Poovan (B3) Musa x paradisiaca (AAB), Sundari (B4) Musa acuminate Colla (AA), Njalipoovan (B5) Musa acuminate Colla (AB), Palayamkodan (B6) Musa x paradisiaca (AAB), Kannan (B8) Musa acuminate Colla (AAA), Pachakadali (B9) Musa acuminate Colla (AAA). Nanoparticles are small particles with a dimension of 10-9 and 10-10. Green synthesis is a new method developed for the synthesis of nanoparticles which is small in size, large surface area and eco- friendly. Leaf extracts of these plants were used for synthesis of copper and zinc nanoparticles, as nanoparticles are powerful antimicrobial agents. The results shows that dry skin and fruit extracts of Palemkodan, Njalipoovan, Etha, Pachakhadali with solvents, propane, ethanol, methanol and acetone and the fresh extract latex and sap of Palemkodan and Poovan with solvents isoproponol, ethanol, methanol with 1/10 and 1/50 dilution are used for the synthesis of copper and zinc nanoparticles. Copper and zinc nanoparticle shows greater antifungal activity than copper sulphate and zinc sulphate, respectively and dry extract. The maximum zone of inhibition was at 50 and 100 µl for all the test plates. This indicates that the zone of inhibition increases with as the concentration of nanoparticles increased. An overall result showed that ethanol, methanol and isoropane could be used as a good solvents and skin of Njalipoovan and Etha could be used for controlling the Fusarium oxysporum cubense under invitro conditions.
Abstract: In the recent decades, nanotechnology has become an important research field of modern material science. Green synthesized nanoparticles have garnered wide interest due to its inherent features like rapidity, eco-friendly and cost-effectiveness. For the first time, Zinc Oxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using Atalantia monophylla leaf extract in the present's investigation. The biosynthesized Zinc Oxide nanoparticles were characterized by UV- Vis spectrophotometer, Fluorescence spectrometer (PL) and their peaks were identified to be at 352 and 410nm respectively. The morphology of the Zinc Oxide nanoparticles was characterized by TEM with EDAX. The X- ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed the crystalline nature and revealed the purity of Zinc Oxide nanoparticles. FTIR spectroscopy was used to analyze the specific functional groups responsible for reduction, stabilization and capping agents present in the nanoparticles. The success-ability of bacteria and fungi with Synthesized ZnO nanoparticles tested using agar well diffusion method were discussed. The bacterial and fungal destruction was better for ZnO nanoparticles than reported for plant extracts and standard drugs. Thus this study proves that Zinc Oxide nanoparticles would contain natural anti-microbial agents through green synthesis which may serve for the production of drugs for antimicrobial therapeutics.
This book comprises a collection of chapters on advances in green nanomaterials. The book looks at ways to establish long‐term safe and sustainable forms of nanotechnology through implementation of nanoparticle biosynthesis with minimum impact on the ecosystem. The book looks at synthesis, processing, and applications of metal and metal oxide nanomaterials and also at bio-nanomaterials. The contents of this book will prove useful for researchers and professionals working in the field of nanomaterials and green technology.
Zinc oxide nanoparticles have potential applications in various areas including optical piezoelectric, semiconductors, magnetic and gas sensing. Most of the approaches for synthesis zinc oxide (ZnO) nanopartcles use hazardous chemicals, high energy requirements and wasteful purification. Therefore, there is a growing need to develop environmentally friendly methods for synthesis of nanoparticles without using hazardous chemicals. Plant leaves provide a better platform for nanoparticles synthesis and have many advantages free from toxic materials, cost-effective and natural capping and stabilizing agents. In this work we designed a simple and green method for synthesis highly dispersed uniform zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) at ambient temperature using pistachio leaf extract. The mechanism responsible for the zinc nanoparticles formation was discussed. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) pattern reveals the formation of ZnO nanoparticles, which shows crystallinity. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) suggested particles size and shape in the range of 5-40 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image reveals that the particles are of spherical and granular nature. UV-Vis absorption shows
The intention of this chapter is to contribute in clarification of nanoparticle synthesis and biocomplexes based on exopolysaccharide, green synthetic method development, their physico-chemical characterization by modern spectroscopy, as well as testing of their antimicrobial activity. Silver nanoparticles of polysaccharide type have scientific interest, but practical importance too, because of their application in pharmaceutical and cosmetic product development due to proven antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. On the other hand, the biocomplexes based on exopolysaccharides are important in treatment of biometal deficiency in human and veterinary medicine, as well as in metal ion transporting in organism. Despite a number of studies of this kind of complexes, the investigations of effect of their structure to pharmaco-biological activity are still interesting. It is important that question of interaction between reducing and stabilizing agents with metal ions is still opened. In this respect, the presented chapter offers further progress in the examination of silver nanoparticles and cobalt biocomplex synthesis with dextran oligosaccharides and its derivatives (such as dextran sulfate and carboxymethyl dextran). The complex structure, spectroscopic characterization, and the spectra-structure correlation have been analyzed by different Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques combined with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and surface plasmon resonance UV-Vis methods.
Traditional methods in synthetic chemistry produce chemical waste and byproducts, yield smaller desired products, and generate toxic chemical substances, but the past two centuries have seen consistent, greener improvements in organic synthesis and transformations. These improvements have contributed to substance handling efficiency by using green-engineered forerunners like sustainable techniques, green processes, eco-friendly catalysis, and have minimized energy consumption, reduced potential waste, improved desired product yields, and avoided toxic organic precursors or solvents in organic synthesis. Green synthesis has the potential to have a major ecological and monetary impact on modern pharmaceutical R&D and organic chemistry fields. This book presents a broad scope of green techniques for medicinal, analytical, environmental, and organic chemistry applications. It presents an accessible overview of new innovations in the field, dissecting the highlights and green chemistry attributes of approaches to green synthesis, and provides cases to exhibit applications to pharmaceutical and organic chemistry. Although daily chemical processes are a major part of the sustainable development of pharmaceuticals and industrial products, the resulting environmental pollution of these processes is of worldwide concern. This edition discusses green chemistry techniques and sustainable processes involved in synthetic organic chemistry, natural products, drug syntheses, as well various useful industrial applications.

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