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Economic liberalization has failed in the Arab world. Instead of ushering in economic dynamism and precipitating democratic reform, it has over the last three decades resulted in greater poverty, rising income inequality and sky-rocketing rates of youth unemployment. In How Capitalism Failed the Arab World, Richard Javad Heydarian shows how years of economic mismanagement, political autocracy and corruption have encouraged people to revolt, and how the initial optimism of the uprisings is now giving way to bitter power struggles, increasing uncertainty and continued economic stagnation. A unique and provocative analysis of some of the key social and political events of the last decade.
The Arab Uprisings that began in 2010 removed four presidents and made more mobilized mass publics an increased factor in the politics of regional states. The main initial problematic of the Arab Uprising was how to translate mass protest into democratization and ultimately democratic consolidation; yet four years later, there was little democratization. This book explores various aspects of this question while, comparing outcomes in three states, Egypt, Syria and Tunisia. The introduction by Raymond Hinnebusch explores how far different starting points —the features of the regime and of the uprising--explain these pathways. Morten Valbjørn then considers the consequences of the Arab uprisings for the credibility of rival democratization and post-democratization paradigms. Vincent Durac examines the efficacy of anti-system social movements in challenging regimes but their inability to steer a democratic transition. Joshua Stacher examines the increased violence deployed by more conercive authoritarian regimes to prevent such a transition. Frede ́ric Volpi and Ewan Stein examine the conseuences of the relative balance between different kinds of Islamists for outcomes. James Allison then examines the impact of workers’ movements on democratic potentials. Adham Saouli assesses the mobilization of communal identities by ruling elites and counter-elites. Raymond Hinnebusch focuses on the negative impact on democratization of competitive external interference inside the uprising states. In Hinnebusch’s conclusion, the combined effects of the agency of these forces and the political, cultural, and economic contexts in which they operate are summarized. This book was previously published as a special issue of Democratization.
The contributors discuss issues central to the debate about the "proper" study of Arabs and Islam, methodological perspectives on the study of the Arab World, urban studies, women's studies, economics and economic policy, foreign policy and strategic studies.
A particularly trenchant political economy of the Arab world, set within the dual contexts of the historical development of the Middle East and the evolving world economic system. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
Marxist Historiographies is the first book to examine the ebb and flow of Marxist historiography from a global and cross-cultural perspective. Since the eighteenth century, few schools of historical thought have exerted a more lasting impact than Marxism, and this impact extends far beyond the Western world within which it is most commonly analysed. Edited by two highly respected authors in the field, this book deals with the effect of Marxism on historical writings not only in parts of Europe, where it originated, but also in countries and regions in Africa, Asia, North and South America and the Middle East. Rather than presenting the chapters geographically, it is structured with respect to how Marxist influence was shown in the works of historians in a particular area. This title takes a dual approach to the subject; some chapters are national in scope, addressing the Marxist impact on historical practices within a country, whereas others deal with the varied expressions of Marxist historiography throughout a wider region. Taking a truly global perspective on this topic, Marxist Historiographies demonstrates clearly the breadth and depth of Marxism’s influence in historical writing throughout the world and is essential reading for all students of historiography.
An insightful and comprehensive compilation of the year’s events, this record offers in-the-moment comment and analysis as well as informed reflection on the 2011 African uprisings. While the tumultuous uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya have seized the attention of media analysts, the concurrent rebellions in Benin, Gabon, Senegal, Swaziland, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Uganda, and in other parts of the African continent have gone virtually unnoticed. Arguing that these disturbances are the result of decades of declining living standards, mass unemployment, land dispossessions, and impoverishment of the majority, this account provides an overview of the struggle for democratization, which constitutes a reawakening of the spirit of freedom and justice for all.
First comprehensive book on the history and development of Arab philosophy, tackling major issues and key thinkers.
This groundbreaking survey explains why war remains predominant in today's world by showing how the spread of nationalism and capitalism has brought about modern warfare. It argues that the key explanation for modern conflict, which is characterized by violent conflicts between nation-states, civil war, and wars over resources, rests in the dialectical relationship between nation-states and capitalist modes of production, where nations have finite boundaries that capitalism seek to transcend in search of increased profits. Discussing issues such as globalization, global capitalism, North and Latin American continental policies, the nature of democracy, decolonization, and technology and military industrial complexes, this unique work challenges common approaches to international relations and peace studies. This innovative, accessible work provides new insights into the causes and nature of modern war that will appeal to any student concerned with peace and violent conflict within the various fields of international relations, political economy, peace studies, and more.
This very readable book by a distinguished economist, Wall Street Journal editor, and Assistant Secretary of the US Treasury is a major challenge both to economic theory and to media explanations of the ongoing 21st century economic crisis. The one percent have pulled off an economic and political revolution. By offshoring manufacturing and professional service jobs, US corporations destroyed the growth of consumer income, the basis of the US economy, leaving the bulk of the population mired in debt. Deregulation was used to concentrate income and wealth in fewer hands and financial firms in corporations “too big to fail,” removing financial corporations from market discipline and forcing taxpayers in the US and Europe to cover bankster losses. Environmental destruction has accelerated as economists refuse to count the exhaustion of nature’s resources as a cost and as corporations impose the cost of their activities on the environment and on third parties who do not share in the profits. This is the book to read for those who want to understand the mistakes that are bringing the West to its knees.
Are Islam and the West on a collision course? From the Ayatollah Khomeini to Saddam Hussein, the image of Islam as a militant, expansionist, and rabidly anti-American religion has gripped the minds of Western governments and media. But these perceptions, John L. Esposito writes, stem from a long history of mutual distrust, criticism, and condemnation, and are far too simplistic to help us understand one of the most important political issues of our time. In this new edition of The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality?, Esposito places the challenge of Islam in critical perspective. Exploring the vitality of this religion as a global force and the history of its relations with the West, Esposito demonstrates the diversity of the Islamic resurgence--and the mistakes our analysts make in assuming a hostile, monolithic Islam. This third edition has been expanded to include new material on current affairs in Turkey, Afghanistan, Palestine, and Southeast Asia, as well as a discussion of international terrorism.
This book outlines the beginnings, historical development, ideology, and structural character of the Arab Ba'th Socialist party (merging of the Ba'th party and the Arab Socialist party in 1954) with a particular emphasis on Syria where the Ba'th party was in power since 1963.
Technology Transfer and Change in the Arab World covers the proceedings of the Seminar of the United Nations Economic Commission for Western Asia. The book presents 24 papers that cover concerns in technology transfer in the Arab world. The coverage of the book includes established patterns of technology acquisition in the Arab world; possible mechanisms for the transfer and development of technology; and the transfer of technology and investment policy design. The selection also presents articles that cover resource related technology such as water science and technology in the Middle East since 1945; induced adjustment and the role of agriculture in economic development; and prospects and scope for solar energy. The book will be of great interest to individuals concerned with the technological development in the Middle East.
"The present report studies the Arab middle class; an important social group that is relatively little understood despite the fundamental role it has played in shaping the economic and social development outcomes in the Arab region. This report contributes to the ongoing debate about factors that led to the Arab uprisings and the difficult transitions to democracy that followed the departure of long-standing dictators by marking elements influencing middle class allegiances, specifically those that weakened their well-established alliances with ruling regimes. The report is motivated by the conviction, on the basis of past development experiences, that a new Arab development model can only succeed if the middle class plays a lead role in designing and implementing processes of economic transformation and political transition. Studying the middle class is therefore crucial to interpreting the past, understanding the present and reading the potential future development prospects of the Arab region. This report introduces three novel approaches aimed at charting a path for sustaining, empowering and enlarging the middle class. The first is related to the measurement of the middle class based on a definition that takes into account both the quantity and quality of their consumption expenditure. The second relates to the profiling of the Arab middle class using variables such as education, employment and mobility, in addition to multidimensional poverty. The third novel approach lies in using these results to provide a narrative of the socioeconomic context of the decade leading up to the uprisings, from a middle class perspective. The report concludes that the empowerment of the Arab middle class could pave a way out of the current development and governance debacle towards an Arab developmental State."--Publisher's description.
This book includes papers presented at the first conference entitled “Network of Reform and Democratic Change in the Arab World” which was jointly organized by Al Quds Center for Political Studies and the Konrad Adenauer Foundation in Amman, 8-10 December 2006. Papers were presented by intellectuals and politicians who reside on various locations of the reform spectrum. They addressed a wide range of reform concepts, its priorities and mechanism. The papers also tackle the reform experience and official, civil, Arab, and international initiatives. They also identify the role of “political Islam” in this process
Islamophobia: The Ideological Campaign Against Muslims examines the rise of anti-Muslim and anti-Arab sentiments in the West following the end of the Cold War through GW Bush’s War on Terror to the Age of Obama. Using “Operation Desert Storm” as a watershed moment, Stephen Sheehi examines the increased mainstreaming of Muslim-bating rhetoric and explicitly racist legislation, police surveillance, witch-trials and discriminatory policies towards Muslims in North America and abroad. The book focuses on the various genres and modalities of Islamophobia from the works of rogue academics to the commentary by mainstream journalists, to campaigns by political hacks and special interest groups. Some featured Islamophobes are Bernard Lewis. Fareed Zakaria, Thomas Friedman, David Horowitz, Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Irshad Manji, George W. Bush, Dick Cheney, John McCain, Hilary Clinton and Barack Obama. Their theories and opinions operate on an assumption that Muslims, particularly Arab Muslims, suffer from particular cultural lacuna that prevent their cultures from progress, democracy and human rights. While the assertion originated in the colonial era, Sheehi demonstrates that it was refurbished as a viable explanation for Muslim resistance to economic and cultural globalization during the Clinton era. Moreover, the theory was honed into the empirical basis for an interventionist foreign policy and propaganda campaign during the Bush regime and continues to underlie Barack Obama’s new internationalism. If the assertions of media pundits and rogue academics became the basis for White House foreign policy, Sheehi also demonstrates how they were translated into a sustained domestic policy of racial profiling and Muslim-baiting by agencies from Homeland Security to the Department of Justice. Furthermore, Sheehi examines the collusion between non-governmental agencies, activist groups and lobbies and local, state and federal agencies to in suppressing political speech on US campuses critical of racial profiling, US foreign policy in the Middle East and Israel. While much of the direct violence against Muslims on American streets, shops and campuses has subsided, Islamophobia runs throughout the Obama administration. Sheehi, therefore, concludes that Muslim and Arab-hating emanate from all corners of the American political and cultural spectrum, serving poignant ideological functions.
Dedicated to advancing the debate on leading contemporary issues of world affairs. Seeks to bring a fresh and policy-relevant perspective to global political, economic, and security questions.

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