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This study examines two important questions regarding terrorism and political violence: which threats to human security constitute root causes for collective violence and which adequate responses for these root causes are available to the international community. The responses are examined on the basis of international law, in particular human rights law, and within the concept of human security, with the goal of fostering a long-term reduction in political violence. Drawing on existing political discussions and research about the root causes of terrorism, Zwitter develops a legal framework for the application of legal terrorism prevention tools. This study serves as a framework of action and analysis using concepts and particularly legal frameworks which are already broadly or universally recognized to increase the applicability of the framework without having to invent new legal regimes. In doing so it makes use of the concept of human security for tackling breeding grounds and other facilitators of terrorism making it universally accessible. Combining social science research with legal sociology and international law, this book will be of interest to students and scholars of politics, international relations, security studies, conflict studies and law.
In today’s complex and interconnected world, scholars of international relations seek to better understand challenges spurred by intensified global communication and interaction. The complex connectedness of modern society and politics compels us to investigate the pattern of interconnections among actors who inhabit social and political spaces. Gabriella Paár-Jákli's study aims to advance theory and practice by examining the networks used by specialists in North America and Europe to achieve their policy goals in the area of science and technology. Her book suggests that to overcome policy problems transnationally, three critical factors should be considered. First, as science and technology policy becomes increasingly critical to resolving global issues, it should be regarded as an integral element of the foreign policy process. Second, as liberal international relations theory argues, the increasing role of NGOs must be taken seriously alongside states as vital agents of policy reform. Third, as transatlantic relations remain center to maintaining the global order, they must be reconsidered. Paar-Jakli assesses the role of digital networks as facilitators of regional cooperation. Utilizing various techniques of social network analysis, her research indicates an active and structurally discernible network in cyberspace among transatlantic organizations, and demonstrates the role of virtual networks as facilitators of cooperative arrangements in transatlantic relations. Paár-Jákli's original research uses social network analysis to investigate transatlantic cooperation, a new approach that will be noteworthy to network and transatlantic scholars as well as policymakers.
This Handbook will serve as a standard reference guide to the subject of human security, which has grown greatly in importance over the past twenty years. Human security has been part of academic and policy discourses since it was first promoted by the UNDP in its 1994 Human Development Report. Filling a clear gap in the current literature, this volume brings together some of the key scholars and policy-makers who have contributed to its emergence as a mainstream concept, including Nobel prize winner Amartya Sen and Sadako Ogata, who jointly chaired the 2001 Commission on Human Security. Drawing upon a range of theoretical and empirical analyses, the Handbook provides examples of the use of human security in policies as diverse as disaster management, arms control and counter-terrorism, and in different geographic and institutional settings from Asia to Africa, and the UN. It also raises important questions about how the concept might be adapted and operationalised in future. Over the course of the book, the authors draw on three key aspects of human security thinking: Theoretical issues to do with defining human security as a specific discourse Human security from a policy and institutional perspective, and how it is operationalised in different policy and geographic contexts Case studies and empirical work Featuring some of the leading scholars in the field, the Routledge Handbook of Human Security will be essential reading for all students of human security, critical security, conflict and development, peace and conflict studies, and of great interest to students of international security and IR in general.
Authority, Ascendancy, and Supremacy examines the American, Chinese, and Russian (Big 3) competition for power and influence in the Post-Cold War Era. With the ascension of regional powers such as India, Iran, Brazil, and Turkey, the Big 3 dynamic is an evolving one, which cannot be ignored because of its effect to not only reshape regional security, but also control influence and power in world affairs. How does one define a "global" or "regional" power in the Post-Cold War Era? How does the relationships among the Big 3 influence regional actors? Gregory O. Hall utilizes country data from primary and secondary sources to reveal that since the early 1990s, competition for influence and power among the Big 3 has intensified and could result in armed confrontation among the major powers. He assesses the state of affairs in each country’s economic, resource, military, social/demographic, and political spheres. In addition, events data, which focuses on international interactions, facilitates identifying trends in Big 3 interactions as well as their concerns and affairs with regional players. Opinion data, drawn from policy makers, scholarly interviews, and survey research data, identifies foreign policy interests among the Big 3, as well non-Big 3 foreign policy behaviors. With its singular focus on American, Chinese, and Russian interactions, policy interests, and behaviors, Authority, Ascendancy, and Supremacy represents a significant contribution for understanding and managing Post-Cold War conflicts and promises to be an important book.
The book presents the international laws on the use of force whilst demonstrating the unique insight a feminist analysis offers this central area of international law. The book highlights key conceptual barriers to the enhanced application of the law of the use of force, and develops international feminist method through rigorous engagement with the key writers in the field The book looks at the key aspects of the UN Charter relevant to the use of force – Article 2(4), Article 51 and Chapter VII powers – as well as engaging with contemporary debates on the possibility of justified force to meet self-determination or humanitarian goals. The text also discusses the arguments in favour of the use of pre-emptive force and reflects on the role feminist legal theories can play in exposing the inconsistencies of contemporary arguments for justified force under the banner of the war on terror. Throughout the text state practice and institutional documentation are analysed, alongside key instances of the use of force. The book makes a genuine, urgently needed contribution to a central area of international law, demonstrating the capacity of feminist legal theories to enlarge our understanding of key international legal dilemmas.
China's commitments in Central Asia illustrate how regional foreign policy works and how long-standing principles of Chinese foreign policy might be revised in the near future. China's rise has 'moved' Asia, which is why it seems that what we have traditionally regarded as the geographic and political scope of Asia might actually considerably change in the near future. Nadine Godehardt gives crucial insights into the Chinese expert discourse on Central Asia - analyzing how Chinese experts define Central Asia when they talk and write about policy issues related to China's immediate Western neighbourhood. In this context, she gives an inside perspective on Chinese voices whose meanings are rarely examined in Chinese International Relations studies.
This volume explores the conditions under which regional organizations engage in governance transfer in and to areas of limited statehood. The authors argue that a global script of governance transfer by regional organizations is emerging, where regional and national actors are adapting governance standards and instruments to their local context.

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