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Kinetic theory is the link between the non--equilibrium statistical mechanics of many particle systems and macroscopic or phenomenological physics. Therefore much attention is paid in this book both to the derivation of kinetic equations with their limitations and generalizations on the one hand, and to the use of kinetic theory for the description of physical phenomena and the calculation of transport coefficients on the other hand. The book is meant for researchers in the field, graduate students and advanced undergraduate students. At the end of each chapter a section of exercises is added not only for the purpose of providing the reader with the opportunity to test his understanding of the theory and his ability to apply it, but also to complete the chapter with relevant additions and examples that otherwise would have overburdened the main text of the preceding sections. The author is indebted to the physicists who taught him Statistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory, Plasma Physics and Fluid Mechanics. I gratefully acknowledge the fact that much of the inspiration without which this book would not have been possible, originated from what I learned from several outstanding teachers. In particular I want to mention the late Prof. dr. H. C. Brinkman, who directed my first steps in the field of theoretical plasma physics, my thesis advisor Prof. dr. N. G. Van Kampen and Prof. dr. A. N. Kaufman, whose course on Non-Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics in Berkeley I remember with delight.