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The second Women in Numbers workshop (WIN2) was held November 6-11, 2011, at the Banff International Research Station (BIRS) in Banff, Alberta, Canada. During the workshop, group leaders presented open problems in various areas of number theory, and working groups tackled those problems in collaborations begun at the workshop and continuing long after. This volume collects articles written by participants of WIN2. Survey papers written by project leaders are designed to introduce areas of active research in number theory to advanced graduate students and recent PhDs. Original research articles by the project groups detail their work on the open problems tackled during and after WIN2. Other articles in this volume contain new research on related topics by women number theorists. The articles collected here encompass a wide range of topics in number theory including Galois representations, the Tamagawa number conjecture, arithmetic intersection formulas, Mahler measures, Newton polygons, the Dwork family, elliptic curves, cryptography, and supercongruences. WIN2 and this Proceedings volume are part of the Women in Numbers network, aimed at increasing the visibility of women researchers' contributions to number theory and at increasing the participation of women mathematicians in number theory and related fields. This book is co-published with the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques.