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This book is a collection of papers presented at the International Workshop on Geotechnical Natural Hazards held July 12–15, 2014, in Kitakyushu, Japan. The workshop was the sixth in the series of Japan–Taiwan Joint Workshops on Geotechnical Hazards from Large Earthquakes and Heavy Rainfalls, held under the auspices of the Asian Technical Committee No. 3 on Geotechnology for Natural Hazards of the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. It was co-organized by the Japanese Geotechnical Society and the Taiwanese Geotechnical Society. The contents of this book focus on geotechnical and natural hazard-related issues in Asia such as earthquakes, tsunami, rainfall-induced debris flows, slope failures, and landslides. The book contains the latest information and mitigation technology on earthquake- and rainfall-induced geotechnical natural hazards. By dissemination of the latest state-of-the-art research in the area, the information contained in this book will help researchers, designers, consultants, government officials, and academicians involved in the mitigation of natural hazards. The findings and other information provided here is expected to contribute toward the development of a new chapter in disaster prevention and mitigation of geotechnical structures.
Intraplate earthquakes occur away from tectonic plate boundaries: their locations are difficult to predict, risking huge damage and loss of life. The 2001 Bhuj earthquake (featured in this book) was the largest intraplate earthquake for three decades and has provided unique insight into these events. This cutting-edge book brings together research from international leading experts in the field. Each chapter provides a comprehensive review of these earthquakes in a different global location, ranging from Australia, China, India and the Sea of Japan, to Western Europe, Brazil, New Madrid (Central USA), and Eastern Canada. They explore similarities and differences between regional features and the mechanical models required to explain them, as well as assessing geophysical techniques used to investigate them. Providing the first global overview of intraplate earthquakes, this is an essential book for academic researchers and professionals in seismology, tectonics, tectonophysics, geodesy, structural geology, earthquake dynamics, geophysics, and structural engineering.
"Physical modelling of earthquake generation processes is essential to further our understanding of seismic hazard. However, the scale-dependent nature of earthquake rupture processes is further complicated by the heterogeneous nature of the crust. Despite significant advances in the understanding of earthquake generation processes, and the derivation of underlying physical laws, controversy remains regarding what the constitutive law for earthquake ruptures ought to be, and how it should be formulated. It is extremely difficult to obtain field data to define physical properties along a fault during a rupture event, at sufficiently high spatial and temporal resolution to resolve the controversy. Instead, laboratory experiments offer a means of obtaining high-resolution measurements that allow the physical nature of shear rupture processes to be deduced. This important new book is written using consistent notation, providing a deeper understanding of earthquake processes from nucleation to their dynamic propagation. Its key focus is a deductive approach based on laboratory-derived physical laws and formulae, such as a unifying constitutive law, a constitutive scaling law, and a physical model of shear rupture nucleation. Topics covered include: the fundamentals of rock failure physics, earthquake generation processes, physical scale dependence, and large-earthquake generation cycles and their seismic activity"--
"This volume brings together a sampling of research addressing issues of continental intraplate earthquakes, including a core of papers from special sessions held at the spring 2004 Joint Assembly of the American and Canadian Geophysical Unions in Montreal. Papers address the broad related topics of the science, hazard, and policy issues of large continental intraplate earthquakes in a worldwide context. One group of papers addresses aspects of the primary scientific issue--where are these earthquakes and what causes them? Answering this question is crucial to determining whether they will continue there or migrate elsewhere. A second group of papers addresses the challenge of assessing the hazard posed by intraplate earthquakes. Although it may be a very long time before the scientific issues are resolved, the progress being made is helping attempts to estimate the probability, size, and shaking of future earthquakes, and the uncertainty of the results. A third group of papers explores the question of how society should mitigate the possible effects of future large continental intraplate earthquakes. Communities around the world face the challenge of deciding how to address this rare, but real, hazard, given the wide range of other societal needs. Continental intraplate earthquakes will remain a challenge to seismologists, earthquake engineers, policy makers, and the public for years to come, but significant progress toward understanding and addressing this challenge is now being made."--Publisher's website.
Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 120. Earthquakes in urban centers are capable of causing enormous damage. The January 16, 1995 Kobe, Japan earthquake was only a magnitude 6.9 event and yet produced an estimated $200 billion loss. Despite an active earthquake prediction program in Japan, this event was a complete surprise. Similar scenarios are possible in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and other urban centers around the Pacific plate boundary. The development of forecast or prediction methodologies for these great damaging earthquakes has been complicated by the fact that the largest events repeat at irregular intervals of hundreds to thousands of years, resulting in a limited historical record that has frustrated phenomenological studies. The papers in this book describe an emerging alternative approach, which is based on a new understanding of earthquake physics arising from the construction and analysis of numerical simulations. With these numerical simulations, earthquake physics now can be investigated in numerical laboratories. Simulation data from numerical experiments can be used to develop theoretical understanding that can be subsequently applied to observed data. These methods have been enabled by the information technology revolution, in which fundamental advances in computing and communications are placing vast computational resources at our disposal.
When nature goes haywire in Texas, it isn't usually an earthshaking event. Though droughts, floods, tornadoes, and hail all keep Texans talking about the unpredictable weather, when it comes to earthquakes, most of us think we're on terra firma in this state. But we're wrong! Nearly every year, earthquakes large enough to be felt by the public occur somewhere in Texas. This entertaining, yet authoritative book covers "all you really need to know" about earthquakes in general and in Texas specifically. The authors explain how earthquakes are caused by natural forces or human activities, how they're measured, how they can be predicted, and how citizens and governments should prepare for them. They also thoroughly discuss earthquakes in Texas, looking at the occurrences and assessing the risks region by region and comparing the amount of seismic activity in Texas to other parts of the country and the world. The book concludes with a compendium of over one hundred recorded earthquakes in Texas from 1811 to 2000 that briefly describes the location, timing, and effects of each event.
Urban seismic risk is growing worldwide and is, increasingly, a problem of developing countries. In 1950, one in four of the people living in the world's fifty largest cities was earthquake-threatened, while in the year 2000, about one in two will be. Further, ofthose people living in earthquake-threatened cities in 1950, about two in three were located in developing countries, while in the year 2000, about nine in ten will be. Unless urban seismic safety is improved, particularly in developing countries, future earthquakes will have ever more disastrous social and economic consequences. In July 1992, an international meeting was organized with the purpose of examining one means ofimproving worldwide urban safety. Entitled "Uses ofEarthquake Damage Scenarios for Cities of the 21st Century," this meeting was held in conjunction with the Tenth World Conference ofEarthquake Engineering, in Madrid, Spain. An earthquake damage scenario (EDS) is adescription of the consequences to an urban area of a large, but expectable earthquake on the critical facilities of that area. In Californian and Japanese cities, EDSes have been used for several decades, mainly for the needs of emergency response officials. The Madrid meeting examined uses of this technique for other purposes and in other, less developed countries. As a result of this meeting, it appeared that EDSes bad significant potential to improve urban seismic safety worldwide.
Example in this ebook Earthquakes in History The scientific study of earthquakes is comparatively new. Until the 18th century, few factual descriptions of earthquakes were recorded, and the natural cause of earthquakes was little understood. Those who did look for natural causes often reached conclusions that seem fanciful today; one popular theory was that earthquakes were caused by air rushing out of caverns deep in the Earth’s interior. The earliest earthquake for which we have descriptive information occurred in China in 1177 B.C. The Chinese earthquake catalog describes several dozen large earthquakes in China during the next few thousand years. Earthquakes in Europe are mentioned as early as 580 B.C., but the earliest for which we have some descriptive information occurred in the mid-16th century. The earliest known earthquakes in the Americas were in Mexico in the late 14th century and in Peru in 1471, but descriptions of the effects were not well documented. By the 17th century, descriptions of the effects of earthquakes were being published around the world—although these accounts were often exaggerated or distorted. The most widely felt earthquakes in the recorded history of North America were a series that occurred in 1811-12 near New Madrid, Mo. A great earthquake, whose magnitude is estimated to be about 8, occurred on the morning of December 16, 1811. Another great earthquake occurred on January 23, 1812, and a third, the strongest yet, on February 7, 1812. Aftershocks were nearly continuous between these great earthquakes and continued for months afterwards. These earthquakes were felt by people as far away as Boston and Denver. Because the 3 most intense effects were in a sparsely populated region, the destruction of human life and property was slight. If just one of these enormous earthquakes occurred in the same area today, millions of people and buildings and other structures worth billions of dollars would be affected. The San Francisco earthquake of 1906 was one of the most destructive in the recorded history of North America—the earthquake and the fire that followed killed nearly 700 people and left the city in ruins. The Alaska earthquake of March 27, 1964, was of greater magnitude than the San Francisco earthquake; it released perhaps twice as much energy and was felt over an area of almost 500,000 square miles. The ground motion near the epicenter was so violent that the tops of some trees were snapped off. One hundred and fourteen people (some as far away as California) died as a result of this earthquake, but loss of life and property would have been far greater had Alaska been more densely populated. To be continue in this ebook

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