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Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) is a recently developed, simplified method of risk assessment that provides the much-needed middle ground between a qualitative process hazard analysis and a traditional, expensive quantitative risk analysis. Beginning with an identified accident scenario, LOPA uses simplifying rules to evaluate initiating event frequency, independent layers of protection, and consequences to provide an order-of-magnitude estimate of risk. LOPA has also proven an excellent approach for determining the safety integrity level necessary for an instrumented safety system, an approach endorsed in instrument standards, such as ISA S84 and IEC 61511. Written by industry experts in LOPA, this pioneering book provides all the necessary information to undertake and complete a Layer of Protection Analysis during any stage in a processes' life cycle. Loaded with tables, charts, and examples, this book is invaluable to technical experts involved with ensuring the safety of a process. Because of its simplified, quicker risk assessment approach, LOPA is destined to become a widely used technique. Join other major companies and start your LOPA efforts now by purchasing this book.
The book is a guide for Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA)practitioners. It explains the onion skin modeland in particular, how it relates to the use of LOPA and the needfor non-safety instrumented independent protection layers. Itprovides specific guidance on Independent Protection Layers (IPLs)that are not Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS). Using theLOPA methodology, companies typically take credit for riskreductions accomplished through non-SIS alternatives; i.e.administrative procedures, equipment design, etc. Itaddresses issues such as how to ensure the effectiveness andmaintain reliability for administrative controls or“inherently safer, passive” concepts. This book will address how the fields of Human ReliabilityAnalysis, Fault Tree Analysis, Inherent Safety, Audits andAssessments, Maintenance, and Emergency Response relate to LOPA andSIS. The book will separate IPL’s into categories such as thefollowing: Inherent Safety eliminates a scenario or fundamentally reduces a hazard Preventive/Proactive prevents initiating event from occurring such as enhancedmaintenance Preventive/Active stops chain of events after initiating event occurs but beforean incident has occurred such as high level in a tank shutting offthe pump. Mitigation (active or passive) minimizes impact once an incident has occurred such as closingblock valves once LEL is detected in the dike (active) or the dikepreventing contamination of groundwater (passive).
The initial Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) book published in 2001 set the rules and approaches for using LOPA as an intermediate method between purely qualitative hazards evaluation/analysis and more quantitative analysis methods. Basic LOPA provides an order-of-magnitude risk estimate of risk with fairly reproducible results. LOPA results are considered critical in determining safety integrity level for design of safety instrumented systems. This guideline clarifies key concepts and reinforces the limitations and the requirements of LOPA. The main scope of the guideline is to provide examples of CMs and ECs and to provide concrete guidance on the protocols that must be followed to use these concepts. The book presents a brief overview of Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) and its variations, and summarizes terminology used for evaluating scenarios in the context of a typical incident sequence. It defines and illustrates the most common types of ECs and CMs and shows how they interrelate to risk criteria as well as their application to other methods.
Rethinking Bhopal: A Definitive Guide to Investigating, Preventing, and Learning from Industrial Disasters is the go-to source for anyone seeking to learn how to improve process safety management (PSM) through applying fundamental asset reliability and incident investigation concepts. The seeds that unified PSM on a global scale were planted in Bhopal, India on December 3, 1984. Since then, considerable progress has been made to protect both workers and communities from catastrophic industrial failures. Industry acknowledges its responsibility to create value with accrued operating experience and that using information received from previous failures is a direct way to prevent future incidents. With this principle in mind, Bloch evaluates modern references related to the Bhopal Disaster, using recognized industrial asset reliability and incident investigation concepts. The practice of objective incident investigation offers a compelling insight into specific decisions and actions that resulted in history’s worst industrial disaster. Recording a fully transparent sequence of events promotes a personal sense of accountability for anyone involved in the manufacturing industry. Lessons learned can be immediately implemented by those with direct PSM, management, engineering, and operating responsibilities. Case histories demonstrate how patterns observed in the timeline leading up to the Bhopal Disaster can be detected in modern incidents and by recognizing these patterns in present-day processes avoids counterproductive operating decisions and unprecedented destruction. This text is instrumental in helping existing organizations re-evaluate their own exposures and risks, and would be a valuable read for any member of a process safety management team. Rethinking Bhopal: A Definitive Guide to Investigating, Preventing, and Learning from Industrial Disasters provides an expansion of knowledge and understanding for the novice in PSM while also providing depth and application considerations to challenge more experienced industry professionals. Note: All royalties from this book go to the Process Safety Heritage Trust Scholarship at Lamar University in Beaumont, Texas, USA. Learn how to improve Process Safety Management (PSM) performance by applying fundamental asset reliability and incident investigation concepts Understand your personal role in detecting and preventing Loss of Primary Containment (LOPC) incidents before they occur Take immediate action to stabilize processes under your control while promoting a systematic approach to eliminating persistent failure mechanisms Includes case histories to helpfully illustrate how to detect potentially destructive patterns in your own organization
Helping the manager or safety specialist to decide the most appropriate technique for hazard identification, this guide provides an overview of the techniques used in the process industries. It also offers a concise assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of each technique, directing the reader to selected references. weaknesses, is based on the experience of European Process Safety Centre members. This is combines witht the experience of the authors who have worked with EPSC.

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