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Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) is a recently developed, simplified method of risk assessment that provides the much-needed middle ground between a qualitative process hazard analysis and a traditional, expensive quantitative risk analysis. Beginning with an identified accident scenario, LOPA uses simplifying rules to evaluate initiating event frequency, independent layers of protection, and consequences to provide an order-of-magnitude estimate of risk. LOPA has also proven an excellent approach for determining the safety integrity level necessary for an instrumented safety system, an approach endorsed in instrument standards, such as ISA S84 and IEC 61511. Written by industry experts in LOPA, this pioneering book provides all the necessary information to undertake and complete a Layer of Protection Analysis during any stage in a processes' life cycle. Loaded with tables, charts, and examples, this book is invaluable to technical experts involved with ensuring the safety of a process. Because of its simplified, quicker risk assessment approach, LOPA is destined to become a widely used technique. Join other major companies and start your LOPA efforts now by purchasing this book.
The book is a guide for Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA)practitioners. It explains the onion skin modeland in particular, how it relates to the use of LOPA and the needfor non-safety instrumented independent protection layers. Itprovides specific guidance on Independent Protection Layers (IPLs)that are not Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS). Using theLOPA methodology, companies typically take credit for riskreductions accomplished through non-SIS alternatives; i.e.administrative procedures, equipment design, etc. Itaddresses issues such as how to ensure the effectiveness andmaintain reliability for administrative controls or“inherently safer, passive” concepts. This book will address how the fields of Human ReliabilityAnalysis, Fault Tree Analysis, Inherent Safety, Audits andAssessments, Maintenance, and Emergency Response relate to LOPA andSIS. The book will separate IPL’s into categories such as thefollowing: Inherent Safety eliminates a scenario or fundamentally reduces a hazard Preventive/Proactive prevents initiating event from occurring such as enhancedmaintenance Preventive/Active stops chain of events after initiating event occurs but beforean incident has occurred such as high level in a tank shutting offthe pump. Mitigation (active or passive) minimizes impact once an incident has occurred such as closingblock valves once LEL is detected in the dike (active) or the dikepreventing contamination of groundwater (passive).
The initial Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) book published in2001 set the rules and approaches for using LOPA as an intermediatemethod between purely qualitative hazards evaluation/analysis andmore quantitative analysis methods. Basic LOPA provides anorder-of-magnitude risk estimate of risk with fairly reproducibleresults. LOPA results are considered critical in determining safetyintegrity level for design of safety instrumented systems. This guideline clarifies key concepts and reinforces thelimitations and the requirements of LOPA. The main scope of theguideline is to provide examples of CMs and ECs and to provideconcrete guidance on the protocols that must be followed to usethese concepts. The book presents a brief overview of Layer ofProtection Analysis (LOPA) and its variations, and summarizesterminology used for evaluating scenarios in the context of atypical incident sequence. It defines and illustrates the mostcommon types of ECs and CMs and shows how they interrelate to riskcriteria as well as their application to other methods.
Helping the manager or safety specialist to decide the most appropriate technique for hazard identification, this guide provides an overview of the techniques used in the process industries. It also offers a concise assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of each technique, directing the reader to selected references. weaknesses, is based on the experience of European Process Safety Centre members. This is combines witht the experience of the authors who have worked with EPSC.
Annotation A textbook for training courses and seminars that demonstrate the application of quantitative risk analysis and tools to the problem of selecting safety integrity levels for safety instrumented systems. It does not explain quantitative risk analysis in general, only its application in the one small area. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR.

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