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The revolutions sweeping the Middle East provide dramatic evidence of the role that technology plays in mobilizing citizen protest and upending seemingly invulnerable authoritarian regimes. A grainy cell phone video of a Tunisian street vendor’s self-immolation helped spark the massive protests that toppled longtime ruler Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, and Egypt’s "Facebook revolution" forced the ruling regime out of power and into exile. While such "liberation technology" has been instrumental in freeing Egypt and Tunisia, other cases—such as China and Iran—demonstrate that it can be deployed just as effectively by authoritarian regimes seeking to control the Internet, stifle protest, and target dissenters. This two-sided dynamic has set off an intense technological race between "netizens" demanding freedom and authoritarians determined to retain their grip on power. Liberation Technology brings together cutting-edge scholarship from scholars and practitioners at the forefront of this burgeoning field of study. An introductory section defines the debate with a foundational piece on liberation technology and is then followed by essays discussing the popular dichotomy of "liberation" versus "control" with regard to the Internet and the sociopolitical dimensions of such controls. Additional chapters delve into the cases of individual countries: China, Egypt, Iran, and Tunisia. This book also includes in-depth analysis of specific technologies such as Ushahidi—a platform developed to document human-rights abuses in the wake of Kenya’s 2007 elections—and alkasir—a tool that has been used widely throughout the Middle East to circumvent cyber-censorship. Liberation Technology will prove an essential resource for all students seeking to understand the intersection of information and communications technology and the global struggle for democracy. Contributors: Walid Al-Saqaf, Daniel Calingaert, Ronald Deibert, Larry Diamond, Elham Gheytanchi, Philip N. Howard, Muzammil M. Hussain, Rebecca MacKinnon, Patrick Meier, Evgeny Morozov, Xiao Qiang, Rafal Rohozinski, Mehdi Yahyanejad
This ethnographic study explores how four alternative media projects in El Salvador integrated digital technologies—particularly social media—into their practices, and whether incorporating these technologies affected citizen participation not only in the media production process, but in a broader discursive sphere of civic and political life as well. Summer Harlow investigates the factors that influence the extent to which alternative media producers are able to use digital tools in liberating ways for social change by opening a space for participation in technology (as content producers) and through technology (as engaged citizens). The book advances existing literature with two main contributions: extending our understanding of the digital divide to include inequalities of social media use, and including technology use—whether liberating or not—as a fundamental component of a mestizaje approach to the study of alternative media.
This book explains strategies, techniques, legal issues and the relationships between digital resistance activities, information warfare actions, liberation technology and human rights. It studies the concept of authority in the digital era and focuses in particular on the actions of so-called digital dissidents. Moving from the difference between hacking and computer crimes, the book explains concepts of hacktivism, the information war between states, a new form of politics (such as open data movements, radical transparency, crowd sourcing and “Twitter Revolutions”), and the hacking of political systems and of state technologies. The book focuses on the protection of human rights in countries with oppressive regimes.
Contains 28 of the papers presented to a US-Japan symposium in Honolulu, November 1993, covering the formation and properties of clinker and cement, the chemistry of hydration and hydrated products, varistors and conductors, the microstructure and properties of hydrated products, and novel and non-P
This dissertation considers the desirability of governmental regulation of consumer retail online electronic payments. The author argues that governmental regulation may be the only solution that will make emergent payment products a viable alternative to existing legacy consumer payment facilities for online transactions. The first part of the dissertation seeks to describe from a comparative perspective, various legal issues that hinder the acceptability of new payment products in the marketplace. The author begins by describing some of the emergent and existing payment products that are currently available on the marketplace. The discussion then turns to examining existing approaches to the regulation of electronic payments in Canada, the United States and the European Community. After canvassing the various paradigms that pertain to the question of regulation vis-a-vis electronic payments, the discussion turns to how the various jurisdictions have chosen to regulate issues pertaining to consumer privacy. Following this, the author describes various laws and regulations pertaining to consumer liability for unauthorized transactions and the various statues adopted by the three jurisdictions described above. The first part concludes with a discussion of possible remedies available to consumers in common law jurisdictions by way of constructive trusts in an effort to show how it may be possible to construe the new emerging products as falling outside of traditional banking and payment legal doctrines and how it may be possible to fashion a remedy for consumer outside of these accepted doctrines.
The author suggests that the answer to the environmental problems of the world, is for humans to be saved from civilization. Humans need to return to natural law, obeying the dictates of evolution. Only then can the earth heal itself. By the balancing of physical and material power with its underlying metaphysical or spiritual power, the author asserts, humans will have "deep power" and the earth will be able to heal itself.
This is a comprehensive analysis of the Third World based on three historical currents: independence, liberation, and revolution. The author puts forth the philosophy that the struggle of the Third World for a new international economic, information, and communication order is interrelated with and parallel to the struggles in the capitlist and socialist worlds. It is primarily a book on communication--what takes place between peoples and their political, economic and cultural environments. From an historical viewpoit, the volume seeks to provide a link within seemingly disconnected world events.
Presents the results of a conference that brought together many of the nation's top experts to evaluate issues of structure and process in the People's Liberation Army.

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