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Effective treatment of acute myocardial infarction remains one of the major issues in cardiology and internal medicine. The present monograph summarizes the relevant experimental data and the results of major clinical trials in the treatment of myocardial infarction. There are contributions of fundamental anatomical and physiological concepts of vascular occlusion and myocardial damage due to ischemia as well as discussions of therapeutic strategies involving thrombolytic agents, adjuvant drug therapy for limitation of myocardial damage, improvement in myocardial tolerance to ischemia and prevention of coronary reocclusion. In this regard, there is an extensive discussion of the role of coronary angioplasty and bypass surgery in the setting of acute myocardial infarction.