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The objective of this edited volume is to bring together a diverse set of analyses to document how small-scale societies responded to paleoenvironmental change based on the evidence of their lithic technologies. The contributions bring together an international forum for interpreting changes in technological organization - embracing a wide range of time periods, geographic regions and methodological approaches.​ ​As technology brings more refined information on ancient climates, the research on spatial and temporal variability of paleoenvironmental changes. In turn, this has also broadened considerations of the many ways that prehistoric hunter-gatherers may have responded to fluctuations in resource bases. From an archaeological perspective, stone tools and their associated debitage provide clues to understanding these past choices and decisions, and help to further the investigation into how variable human responses may have been. Despite significant advances in the theory and methodology of lithic technological analysis, there have been few attempts to link these developments to paleoenvironmental research on a global scale.
This volume combines 10 years of accomplished research at the Pilauco site. The studies are focused on a variety of scientific areas including geological, sedimentological, geomorphological and paleobotanical topics, as well as paleontology of vertebrata and invertebrata, micropaleontology, archaeology, biochemistry, taxonomy, taphonomy, astrophysics and the development of some particular touristic aspects. In 18 chapters a variety of authors describe the excavation and investigation of this unique location. The book presents Pilauco as an example for the natural laboratory which can be found in South America, a testing ground for many of the hypotheses regarding migrations of animals and humans. In this context the study of topics, such as the paleozoography, the role of megafauna species for the architecture of the forests, the animal extinctions or the early human settlements, is extremely important on a global scale. The Pilauco site features paleontological and archaeological evidences and is contemporaneous with the Monte Verde site (~ 15,000 cal. yr AP). It is located 100 km north from Monte Verde and lies within the Intermediate Depression in northwestern Chilean Patagonia. It was discovered by chance in 1986 and has been excavated and investigated since 2007.
Evolutionary Research in Archaeology seeks to provide a comprehensive overview of contemporary evolutionary research in archaeology. The book will provide a single source for introduction and overview of basic and advanced evolutionary concepts and research programs in archaeology. Content will be organized around four areas of critical research including microevolutionary and macroevolutionary process, human ecology studies (evolutionary ecology, demography, and niche construction), and evolutionary cognitive archaeology. Authors of individual chapters will address theoretical foundations, history of research, contemporary contributions and debates, and implications for the future for their respective topics. As appropriate, authors present or discuss short empirical case studies to illustrate key arguments. ​
This handbook examines human responses to climatic and environmental changes in the past,and their impacts on disease patterns, nutritional status, migration, and interpersonal violence. Bioarchaeology—the study of archaeological human skeletons—provides direct evidence of the human experience of past climate and environmental changes and serves as an important complement to paleoclimate, historical, and archaeological approaches to changes we may expect with global warming. Comprising 27 chapters from experts across a broad range of time periods and geographical regions, this book addresses hypotheses about how climate and environmental changes impact human health and well-being, factors that promote resilience, and circumstances that make migration or interpersonal violence a more likely outcome. The volume highlights the potential relevance of bioarchaeological analysis to contemporary challenges by organizing the chapters into a framework outlined by the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals for 2030. Planning for a warmer world requires knowledge about humans as biological organisms with a deep connection to Earth's ecosystems balanced by an appreciation of how historical and socio-cultural circumstances, socioeconomic inequality, degrees of urbanization, community mobility, and social institutions play a role in shaping long-term outcomes for human communities. Containing a wealth of nuanced perspectives about human-environmental relations, book is key reading for students of environmental archaeology, bioarchaeology, and the history of disease. By providing a longer view of contemporary challenges, it may also interest readers in public health, public policy, and planning.
Scholars from a variety of disciplines consider cases of convergence in lithic technology, when functional or developmental constraints result in similar forms in independent lineages. Hominins began using stone tools at least 2.6 million years ago, perhaps even 3.4 million years ago. Given the nearly ubiquitous use of stone tools by humans and their ancestors, the study of lithic technology offers an important line of inquiry into questions of evolution and behavior. This book examines convergence in stone tool-making, cases in which functional or developmental constraints result in similar forms in independent lineages. Identifying examples of convergence, and distinguishing convergence from divergence, refutes hypotheses that suggest physical or cultural connection between far-flung prehistoric toolmakers. Employing phylogenetic analysis and stone-tool replication, the contributors show that similarity of tools can be caused by such common constraints as the fracture properties of stone or adaptive challenges rather than such unlikely phenomena as migration of toolmakers over an Arctic ice shelf. Contributors R. Alexander Bentley, Briggs Buchanan, Marcelo Cardillo, Mathieu Charbonneau, Judith Charlin, Chris Clarkson, Loren G. Davis, Metin I. Eren, Peter Hiscock, Thomas A. Jennings, Steven L. Kuhn, Daniel E. Lieberman, George R. McGhee, Alex Mackay, Michael J. O'Brien, Charlotte D. Pevny, Ceri Shipton, Ashley M. Smallwood, Heather Smith, Jayne Wilkins, Samuel C. Willis, Nicolas Zayns
These essays deal with methodological and theoretical issues addressed by the Black Mesa Archaeological Project, 1976?81. Introductory and concluding chapters by Stephen Plog and Shirley Powell dis­cuss the history of archaeological re­search on Black Mesa. The rest of the book centers on four general topics. Papers by Alan T. Synenki and by Powell and Anthony L. Klesert consider the measurement of relationships be­tween surface and subsurface deposits. Essays by Kathy Bagley Baumgartner, Shereen Lerner, and Powell discuss func­tional interpretations of material re­mains. Analyses of the environment of the study area and the procurement of food are presented by Richard I. Ford, Michele Semé, and David Eckles. Trade relationships between groups on north­ern Black Mesa and groups in surround­ing regions are explored by Margerie Green and Katharine W. Fernstrom.
This book offers a series of studies focused on the analysis of stone tool technology of the Folsom Culture, bison-hunting inhabitants of the North American prairie grasslands during the terminal Pleistocene. Recent work on Folsom lithic assemblages has revealed considerable complexity in the factors that generated similarities and differences in Folsom chipped stone economy, beyond simply the manufacturing sequence and technique of fluting Folsom projectile points. The analyses presented here use comparative methods to identify patterns of lithic assemblage structure and variation that provide insights into the organization of Folsom technology and lifeways, considering multiple aspects of Folsom technology including: tool manufacture and reduction system modeling, studies of raw material variation, use-wear, technological variation in weaponry assemblages, and the organization of technology. They thus contribute substantially to a growing understanding of the patterns and processes in Folsom technology and the causes of diversity within Folsom lithic assemblages.
General background: modern human behavior in the Paleolithic world -- Some key issues in the emergence and diversity of 'modern' human behavior / Paul Mellars -- Early modern human dispersal in central and eastern Europe / Jiří Svoboda -- Human migrations and adaptations in Asia inferred from genome diversity / Ryosuke Kimura -- Migration and the origins of Homo sapiens / Peter Bellwood -- South Asia -- Modern human emergence in South Asia: a review of the fossil and genetic evidence / Sheela Athreya -- Antiquity of modern humans and behavioral modernity in the Indian subcontinent: implications of the Jwalapuram evidence / Ravi Korisettar -- Genes, stone tools, and modern humans, dispersal in the center of the Old World / Parth R. Chauhan, Shantanu Ozarkar, and Shaunak Kulkarni -- Southeast Asia -- Hoabinhians: a key population with which to debate the peopling of Southeast Asia / Hirofumi Matsumura, Marc F. Oxenham, and Nguyen Lan Cuong -- First archaeological evidence of symbolic activities from the Pleistocene of Vietnam / Nguyen Viet -- Reconstructing late Pleistocene climates, landscapes, and human activities in northern Borneo from excavations in the Niah Caves / Tim Reynolds and Graeme Barker -- Tracking evidence for modern human behavior in Paleolithic Indonesia / Truman Simanjuntak, François Sémah, and Anne-Marie Sémah -- Human emergence and adaptation to an island environment in the Philippine Paleolithic / Armand S. Mijares -- Detecting traits of modern behavior through microwear analysis: a case study from the Philippine terminal Pleistocene / Alfred F. Pawlik -- Wallacea and Australia -- Maritime migration and lithic assemblage on Talaud islands in northern Wallacea during the late Pleistocene / Rintaro Ono, Naoki Nakajima, Hiroe Nishizawa, Shizuo Oda, and Santoso Soegondho -- Crossing the Wallace line: the maritime skills of the earliest colonists in the Wallacean archipelago / Sue O'Connor -- Cultural diversification and the global dispersion of Homo sapiens: lessons from Australia / Peter Hiscock -- East Asia mainland and Taiwan -- Chang-pin culture of Paleolithic Taiwan and its related problems / Chao-mei Lien -- New evidence of modern human behavior in Paleolithic central China / Youping Wang -- Handaxes in the Imjin River basin, Korea: implications for late Pleistocene hominin evolution in East Asia / Seonbok Yi -- The characteristics of upper Paleolithic industries in Korea: innovation, continuity, and interaction / Gikil Lee -- East Asia Japanese archipelago -- The appearance and characteristics of the early upper Paleolithic in the Japanese archipelago / Masami Izuho -- Paleovegetation during MIS 3 in the east Asia / Hikaru Takahara and Ryoma Hayashi -- Further study on the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinction in the Japanese archipelago / Akira Iwase, Keiichi Takahashi, and Masami Izuho -- Pleistocene seafaring and colonization of the Ryuku Islands, southwestern Japan / Yousuke Kaifu, Masaki Fujita, Minoru Yoneda, and Shinji Yamasaki -- Maritime transport of obsidian in Japan during the upper Paleolithic / Nobuyuki Ikeya -- Appearance of Hakuhen-Sentoki (HS points) and second modern human migration into Kyushu, Japan / Kazuki Morisaki -- Trap-pit hunting in late Pleistocene Japan / Hiroyuki Sato -- Further analyses of Hokkaido Jōmon mitochondrial DNA / Noboru Adachi, Ken-ichi Shinoda, and Masami Izuho -- On the processes of diversification in microblade technocomplexes in the late glacial Hokkaido / Yuichi Nakazawa and Satoru Yamada -- Siberia -- The overland dispersal of modern humans to eastern Asia / Ted Goebel -- The Paleolithic peopling of Mongolia: an updated assessment / Jacques Jaubert -- Middle and upper Paleolithic interactions and the emergence of 'modern behavior' in southern Siberia and Mongolia / Evgeny P. Rybin -- The emergence of modern behavior in the Transbaikal, Russia: timing and technology / Ian Buvit -- Modern human response to the last glacial maximum in Siberia / Kelly E. Graf -- Summary and conclusions -- Modern human dispersal and behavior in Paleolithic Asia: summary and discussion / Yousuke Kaifu, Masami Izuho, and Ted Goebel
Contains papers of the Annual Conference on Historic Site Archeology.
23 papers, mostly from the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Alaska Anthropological Association marking the retirement of R D Guthrie in 1996 and reflecting his interests in archaeology, anthropology, palaeontology, palaeoecology and taphonomy. The papers are divided into three sections: Palaeoecology, including studies of Pleistocene and Holocene horses, otters, bison and human populations; Archaeology, including the evidence from the remains of cod, salmon, seals and whales from sites in Alaska, Newfoundland and the Arctic; Methods, with examinations of kill and butchering sites.

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