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Many energy practitioners are either uninformed or misinformed regarding how electricity is actually priced. Many are also unaware of how to properly calculate potential dollar savings from energy efficiency upgrades. Designed for commercial/industrial/institutional (C&I) power customers, this book details ways to secure lower electric rates and pricing in both regulated and deregulated retail power markets. The range of options varies from simple methods (e.g., minimizing sales tax) to more complex techniques (e.g., intervening in regulatory rate proceedings). With 40+ years’ experience in energy services, Mr. Audin provides an excellent understanding of power pricing and ways to reduce it.
The Department of Defense (DoD) is the largest consumer of energy in the federal government. In turn, the U.S. Air Force is the largest consumer of energy in the DoD, with a total annual energy expenditure of around $10 billion. Approximately 84 percent of Air Force energy use involves liquid fuel consumed in aviation whereas approximately 12 percent is energy (primarily electricity) used in facilities on the ground. This workshop was concerned primarily with opportunities to reduce energy consumption within Air Force facilities that employ energy intensive industrial processes-for example, assembly/disassembly, painting, metal working, and operation of radar facilities-such as those that occur in the maintenance depots and testing facilities. Air Force efforts to reduce energy consumption are driven largely by external goals and mandates derived from Congressional legislation and executive orders. To date, these goals and mandates have targeted the energy used at the building or facility level rather than in specific industrial processes. In response to a request from the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Energy and the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Science, Technology, and Engineering, the National Research Council, under the auspices of the Air Force Studies Board, formed the Committee on Energy Reduction at U.S. Air Force Facilities Using Industrial Processes: A Workshop. The terms of reference called for a committee to plan and convene one 3 day public workshop to discuss: (1) what are the current industrial processes that are least efficient and most cost ineffective? (2) what are best practices in comparable facilities for comparable processes to achieve energy efficiency? (3) what are the potential applications for the best practices to be found in comparable facilities for comparable processes to achieve energy efficiency? (4) what are constraints and considerations that might limit applicability to Air Force facilities and processes over the next ten year implementation time frame? (5) what are the costs and paybacks from implementation of the best practices? (6) what will be a proposed resulting scheme of priorities for study and implementation of the identified best practices? (7) what does a holistic representation of energy and water consumption look like within operations and maintenance?
Energy efficiency, environmental protection, and processing waste management continue to attract increased attention in the food processing industry. As with other industrial sectors, reducing costs while also reducing environmental impact and improving overall sustainability is becoming an important part of the business process. Providing practical guidance, Energy Efficiency and Management in Food Processing Facilities explores energy efficiency technologies, emerging energy efficient processes, and methods for converting food processing wastes into energy. Organized around five central themes, the book explores: Fundamentals of energy conservation, analysis, and management Energy conservation technologies as applied to the food processing industry Energy efficiency and conservations in current food processing systems Emerging systems Energy conversion technologies for utilization of food processing wastes Conservation Techniques that Improve the Bottom Line The lack of information on energy conservation and conversion technologies has been a major barrier to energy efficiency improvement and the utilization of processing wastes in the food processing industry. With coverage ranging from basic theory to traditional and alternative energy, this book provides the required skill set for the increased energy conservation and reduced consumption that will positively impact the bottom line in food processing facilities.
The outstanding points of this book are: 1) it is the first book focused on transplant production in closed systems, 2) many of the authors are acknowledged as the experts in their designated research area, and 3) the book covers both biological and engineering aspects of transplant production, and therefore, 4) it represents an integration of state-of-the-art, multidisciplinary technologies and knowledge. A book entitled Plant Production in Closed Ecosystems published in 1997 covers similar topics, but Transplant Production in the 21st Century uniquely focuses on providing updated information and new concepts for a closed system that is suitable for transplant production in the 21st Century. It includes additional information related to biotechnology/micropropagation and micro-environmental analysis/control. Transplant Production in the 21st Century will be an important publication for the field of horticulture, agriculture and forestry, for researchers and engineers in biotechnology, greenhouse technology, information technology, and environmental control.
"Completely revised and edited throughout, this latest edition includes new chapters on creating green buildings and web-based building automation controls along with a comprehensive revision of the chapter on lighting. Written by three of the most respected energy professionals in the industry, this book examines the fundamental objectives of energy management and illustrates techniques and tools proven effective for achieving results. Topics include distributed generation, energy auditing, rate structures, and economic evaluation techniques as well as lighting efficiency improvement, HVAC optimization, combustion and use of industrial wastes, and steam generation and distribution system performance."--Publisher description.
A critical aspect of sustainability associated with water and wastewater systems is to maintain and manage infrastructure in the most efficient and economical manner while complying with environmental regulations and keeping rates at acceptable levels. Given the high cost of fuel, our growing population, and the associated increase in energy needs,
Presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, & State levels. Provides industry decision makers, government policymakers, analysts, & the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding U.S. electricity markets.
The primary purpose of this report is to provide information and to describe techniques that will help utilities and others determine the impacts of reduced demand on water utilities. The remainder of the report is organized as follows: Chapter 2, "Methods and Materials", describes the case-study format and the methodology used to collect the data; Chapter 3, "General Concepts," provides an overview of the significant economic and financial analysis concepts used to categorize and analyze the data; Chapter 4, "Profiles of Participating Agencies," describes the participating agencies, including general profiles of each; Chapter 5, "Operating Cost Impacts," details the analytical framework and results for short-term operating costs; Chapter 6, "Revenue Impacts," illustrates how water utility revenues and rates are affected by reduced demand and potential reactions to rate adjustments; Chapter 7, "Long-Term Capital Savings," describes potential savings from capital deferrals or avoidance resulting from demand reduction; Chapter 8, "External Impacts," provides an overview of the impacts that may occur outside of water utilities as the demand for water decreases; Chapter 9, "Conclusions," looks at all the impacts and how the results of this study can be used by utilities.
Providing wastewater and drinking water service to citizens requires energy—and a lot of it. The twin problems of steadily rising energy costs and climate change have therefore made the issue of energy management one of the most salient issues facing wastewater and water utilities today. Energy management is also at the heart of efforts across the entire sector to ensure that utility operations are sustainable in the future. More and more utilities are realizing that a systematic approach for managing the full range of energy challenges they face is the best way to ensure that these issues are addressed on an ongoing basis in order to reduce climate impacts, save money, and remain sustainable. Working closely with a number of utilities and others, the Office of Water at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proactively addressing this issue by developing this Energy Management Guidebook for Wastewater and Water Utilities that provides a systematic approach to reducing energy consumption and energy cost. This Guidebook was specifically written to provide water and wastewater utility managers with a step-by-step method, based on a Plan-Do-Check-Act management system approach, to identify, implement, measure, and improve energy efficiency and renewable opportunities at their utilities.
The Department of Defense (DoD) constructs, operates, and maintains a large number of facilities. DoD incorporates life-cycle cost-effective practices into many aspects of the military planning and construction processes. This report provides RAND's description and assessment of the process used to obtain life-cycle cost-effective facilities and how that affects DoD construction options and choices.

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