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Computers, telecommunications equipment, semiconductors - the products and technologies of the information and communications (IC) industry have transformed our world. Most of these products were initially developed in Western countries, but by the early 1990s some of the world's largestcompanies in the field were Japanese. This book explains the resurgence of Japan's IC giants, their global status, and their strengths and weaknesses. Empirical scrutiny of their evolution is the author's own theory of the most appropriate method for studying the dynamics of long-term industrialchange. While the Japanese motor vehicle and consumer electronics industries have been relatively well analysed, there are no comprehensive up-to-date studies of the Japanese IC industry. This book addresses the questions consequently left unanswered: How were Japanese IC companies able tocatch up with their western rivals--and in some cases overtake them? How have Japanese IC companies responded to the post-IBM world of computing? Why do they remain primarily dependent on the Japanese market? Why do they combine competences in computers, semiconductors, and telecommunicationsequipment, while their US counterparts are far more specialized? What role has been played by the Japanese government and the system of controlled competition in their success? Will Japanese IC companies become increasingly competitive internationally in the future? The author extends theevolutionary approach to the organization of the firm and industry developed by such writers as Schumpeter, Nelson, Winter, and Chandler. He argues that in order to understand the evolution of companies and industries, it is necessary to create a theory of the firm capable of encompassing thedevelopment of real firms in the real world in real time. This approach stresses the importance of the beliefs that are constructed in the firm under conditions of 'interpretive ambiguity', which guide the firm's decisions and its reactions to new technologies. Lengthy analyses of NEC and NTT (byfar the world's largest company in terms of market value; its future currently under government scrutiny), and of the computing, switiching, and optical fibre industries, illustrate these concepts. Based on over 600 personal interviews over eight years with Japanese leaders, this book providesimportant new material on the past, present, and future of Japanese industry.
Computer: A History of the Information Machine traces the history of the computer and shows how business and government were the first to explore its unlimited, information-processing potential. Old-fashioned entrepreneurship combined with scientific know-how inspired now famous computer engineers to create the technology that became IBM. Wartime needs drove the giant ENIAC, the first fully electronic computer. Later, the PC enabled modes of computing that liberated people from room-sized, mainframe computers. This third edition provides updated analysis on software and computer networking, including new material on the programming profession, social networking, and mobile computing. It expands its focus on the IT industry with fresh discussion on the rise of Google and Facebook as well as how powerful applications are changing the way we work, consume, learn, and socialize. Computer is an insightful look at the pace of technological advancement and the seamless way computers are integrated into the modern world. Through comprehensive history and accessible writing, Computer is perfect for courses on computer history, technology history, and information and society, as well as a range of courses in the fields of computer science, communications, sociology, and management.
This book describes a new class of computing devices which are becoming omnipresent in every day life. They make information access and processing easily available for everyone from anywhere at any time. Mobility, wireless connectivity, di- versity, and ease-of-use are the magic keywords of Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing. The book covers these front-end devices as well as their operating systems and the back-end infrastructure which integrate these pervasive components into a seamless IT world. A strong emphasis is placed on the underlying technologies and standards applied when building up pervasive solutions. These fundamental topics include commonly used terms such as XML, WAP, UMTS, GPRS, Bluetooth, Jini, transcoding, and cryptography, to mention just a few. Voice, Web Application Servers, Portals, Web Services, and Synchronized and Device Management are new in the second edition. Besides a comprehensive state-of-the-art description of the Pervasive Computing technology itself, this book gives an overview of today's real-life applications and accompanying service offerings. M-Commerce, e-Business, networked home, travel, and finance are exciting examples of applied Ubiquitous Computing.
This engaging work provides a concise introduction to the exciting world of computing, encompassing the theory, technology, history, and societal impact of computer software and computing devices. Spanning topics from global conflict to home gaming, international business, and human communication, this text reviews the key concepts unpinning the technology which has shaped the modern world. Topics and features: introduces the foundations of computing, the fundamentals of algorithms, and the essential concepts from mathematics and logic used in computer science; presents a concise history of computing, discussing the historical figures who made important contributions, and the machines which formed major milestones; examines the fields of human−computer interaction, and software engineering; provides accessible introductions to the core aspects of programming languages, operating systems, and databases; describes the Internet revolution, the invention of the smartphone, and the rise of social media, as well as the Internet of Things and cryptocurrencies; explores legal and ethical aspects of computing, including issues of hacking and cybercrime, and the nature of online privacy, free speech and censorship; discusses such innovations as distributed systems, service-oriented architecture, software as a service, cloud computing, and embedded systems; includes key learning topics and review questions in every chapter, and a helpful glossary. Offering an enjoyable overview of the fascinating and broad-ranging field of computing, this easy-to-understand primer introduces the general reader to the ideas on which the digital world was built, and the historical developments that helped to form the modern age.
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The breathtakingly rapid pace of change in computing makes it easy to overlook the pioneers who began it all. Written by Martin Davis, respected logician and researcher in the theory of computation, The Universal Computer: The Road from Leibniz to Turing explores the fascinating lives, ideas, and discoveries of seven remarkable mathematicians. It tells the stories of the unsung heroes of the computer age – the logicians. The story begins with Leibniz in the 17th century and then focuses on Boole, Frege, Cantor, Hilbert, and Gödel, before turning to Turing. Turing’s analysis of algorithmic processes led to a single, all-purpose machine that could be programmed to carry out such processes—the computer. Davis describes how this incredible group, with lives as extraordinary as their accomplishments, grappled with logical reasoning and its mechanization. By investigating their achievements and failures, he shows how these pioneers paved the way for modern computing. Bringing the material up to date, in this revised edition Davis discusses the success of the IBM Watson on Jeopardy, reorganizes the information on incompleteness, and adds information on Konrad Zuse. A distinguished prize-winning logician, Martin Davis has had a career of more than six decades devoted to the important interface between logic and computer science. His expertise, combined with his genuine love of the subject and excellent storytelling, make him the perfect person to tell this story.

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