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The second edition of Microorganisms in Foods 7: Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management updates and expands on information on the role of microbiological testing in modern food safety management systems. After helping the reader understand the often confusing statistical concepts underlying microbiological sampling, the second edition explores how risk assessment and risk management can be used to establish goals such as a "tolerable levels of risk," Appropriate Levels of Protection, Food Safety Objectives or Performance Objectives for use in controlling foodborne illness. Guidelines for establishing effective management systems for control of specific hazards in foods are also addressed, including new examples for pathogens and indicator organisms in powdered infant formula, Listeria monocytogenes in deli-meats, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in leafy green vegetables, viruses in oysters and Campylobacter in poultry. In addition, a new chapter on application of sampling concept to microbiological methods, expanded chapters covering statistical process control, investigational sampling, environmental sampling, and alternative sampling schemes. The respective roles of industry and government are also explored, recognizing that it is through their collective actions that effective food safety systems are developed and verified. Understanding these systems and concepts can help countries determine whether imported foods were produced with an equivalent level of protection. Microorganisms in Foods 7 is intended for anyone using microbiological testing or setting microbiological criteria, whether for governmental food inspection and control, or industrial applications. It is also intended for those identifying the most effective use of microbiological testing in the food supply chain. For students in food science and technology, this book provides a wealth of information on food safety management principles used by government and industry, with many references for further study. The information was prepared by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF). The ICMSF was formed in response to the need for internationally acceptable and authoritative decisions on microbiological limits for foods in international commerce. The current membership consists of fifteen food microbiologists from twelve countries, drawn from government, universities, and food processing and related industries.
The second edition of Microorganisms in Foods 7: Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management updates and expands on information on the role of microbiological testing in modern food safety management systems. After helping the reader understand the often confusing statistical concepts underlying microbiological sampling, the second edition explores how risk assessment and risk management can be used to establish goals such as a “tolerable levels of risk,” Appropriate Levels of Protection, Food Safety Objectives or Performance Objectives for use in controlling foodborne illness. Guidelines for establishing effective management systems for control of specific hazards in foods are also addressed, including new examples for pathogens and indicator organisms in powdered infant formula, Listeria monocytogenes in deli-meats, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in leafy green vegetables, viruses in oysters and Campylobacter in poultry. In addition, a new chapter on application of sampling concept to microbiological methods, expanded chapters covering statistical process control, investigational sampling, environmental sampling, and alternative sampling schemes. The respective roles of industry and government are also explored, recognizing that it is through their collective actions that effective food safety systems are developed and verified. Understanding these systems and concepts can help countries determine whether imported foods were produced with an equivalent level of protection. Microorganisms in Foods 7 is intended for anyone using microbiological testing or setting microbiological criteria, whether for governmental food inspection and control, or industrial applications. It is also intended for those identifying the most effective use of microbiological testing in the food supply chain. For students in food science and technology, this book provides a wealth of information on food safety management principles used by government and industry, with many references for further study. The information was prepared by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF). The ICMSF was formed in response to the need for internationally acceptable and authoritative decisions on microbiological limits for foods in international commerce. The current membership consists of fifteen food microbiologists from twelve countries, drawn from government, universities, and food processing and related industries.
Microorganisms in Foods 8: Use of Data for Assessing Process Control and Product Acceptance is written by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods with assistance from a limited number of consultants. The purpose of this book is to provide guidance on appropriate testing of food processing environments, processing lines, and finished product to enhance the safety and microbiological quality of the food supply. Microorganisms in Foods 8 consists of two parts. Part I, Principles of Using Data in Microbial Control, builds on the principles of Microorganisms in Foods 7: Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management (2002), which illustrates how HACCP and Good Hygienic Practices (GHP) provide greater assurance of safety than microbiological testing, but also identifies circumstances where microbiological testing may play a useful role. Part II, Specific Applications to Commodities, provides practical examples of criteria and other tests and is an updated and expanded version of Part II of Microorganisms in Foods 2: Sampling for Microbiological Analysis: Principles and Specific Applications (2nd ed. 1986). Part II also builds on the 2nd edition of Microorganisms in Foods 6: Microbial Ecology of Food Commodities (2005) by identifying appropriate tests to evaluation the effectiveness of controls.
Intended for those interested in applied aspects of food microbiology, for 17 commodity areas, this book describes the initial microbial flora and the prevalence of pathogens, the microbiological consequences of processing, spoilage patterns, episodes implicating those commodities with foodborne illness, and measures to control pathogens.
While predictive microbiology has made a major contribution to food safety, many uncertainties linger, such as the growing evidence that traditional microbial inactivation models do not always fit the experimental data and that all the bacteria of one population do not necessarily behave homogeneously. These problems are all the more acute because of a growing interest in minimal processing techniques which is requiring greater precision from models. Edited by leading authorities, this volume reviews current developments in quantitative microbiology. Part one discusses best practice in constructing quantitative models and part two looks at specific areas in new approaches to modelling microbial behavior.
Advances in food science, technology, and engineering are occurring at such a rapid rate that obtaining current, detailed information is challenging at best. While almost everyone engaged in these disciplines has accumulated a vast variety of data over time, an organized, comprehensive resource containing this data would be invaluable to have. The
The control of food safety in modern food processing relies upon HACCP and other systems that identify hazards and define processes to control them. These demand a thorough understanding of the properties of microbial pathogens under all the conditions that could be found in foods and the food processing environment. Detailed information about each of the main organisms responsible for causing microbial food poisoning is presented here in an accessible and systematic way. An overview of key properties for each organism is followed by a series of tables detailing the response of the organism under a range of variable conditions. This information has been prepared by the International Commission for the Microbiological Specifications of Foods (ICMSF).
This Manualis intended to help producers, regulators, trainers and others concerned with the safety of traditional foods in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, and may be used as material for training in food hygiene and the HACCP system, as well as the basis for the development of food safety programs. It is expected that most producers of the foods covered in this manual will have little or no knowledge of the HACCP system, so to expect them to implement the relevant models alone would not be realistic. Rather, governmental or nongovernmental agencies engaged in health, food control, or safety of the environment will need to help groups of producers in implementing the models in their plants. This manual covers just a few of the many traditional foods of the Region. It is hoped that that countries will develop and share generic HACCP models for other traditional foods in the Region so that a second edition can follow.
Water Activity and Food explores the role of water activity in the water relations of microorganisms and in food processing, packaging, and storage. It reviews the literature and provides numerous examples demonstrating the use of water activity to predict the reactions of microorganisms or the stability of food components. It also highlights cases where water activity is not a reliable predictor of events and considers some interesting interactions with other environmental parameters. Comprised of 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of water in foods and solutions, water activity values for foods, and water relations of enzyme activity. It then discusses lipid oxidation, enzyme reactions and non-enzymatic browning, and several other food-related factors. The reader is also introduced to water relations of microbial growth; the effects of water on microbial survival; the spoilage and preservation of foods at various levels of water activity; the water relations of food-borne pathogens such as Salmonella and toxigenic molds; the importance of water activity in non-microbiological aspects of food processing and storage; and the influence of atmospheric relative humidity on sanitation and the protection of food products. This book is an important source of information for researchers in food microbiology and microbial water relations.
Just as the previous editions of this highly regarded text responded to the transitions of their time, the third edition reflects the current evolution of food microbiology and explores the most recent developments in the discipline. Completely revised and updated, Fundamental Food Microbiology, Third Edition includes the latest information on microbial stress response, food biopreservatives, recent pathogens of importance (such as Helicobacter pylori and BSE), and control by novel processing technologies. A new chapter addresses foodborne disease concerns in ready-to-eat foods, and an expanded chapter on microbial stress investigates the importance of stress response in foods. The book features updated coverage of spoilage bacteria in refrigerated foods, presents new sections on fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and includes questions and selected readings at the end of each chapter. Providing comprehensive information on the interactions of microorganisms and food, this timely resource enhances understanding of food microbiology in a logical and concise manner. It will be a valuable reference for professionals and students involved in food and microbiology.
These topic books cover the most frequently studied options for Biology at Advanced Level. The clear format of these texts will aid students' understanding, whilst extending their knowledge.
Maintaining the high standard set by the previous bestselling editions, Fundamental Food Microbiology, Fourth Edition presents the most up-to-date information in this rapidly growing and highly dynamic field. Revised and expanded to reflect recent advances, this edition broadens coverage of foodborne diseases to include many new and emerging pathogens, as well as descriptions of the mechanism of pathogenesis. An entirely new chapter on detection methods appears with evaluations of advanced rapid detection techniques using biosensors and nanotechnology. With the inclusion of many more easy-to-follow figures and illustrations, this text provides a comprehensive introductory source for undergraduates, as well as a valuable reference for graduate level and working professionals in food microbiology or food safety. Each chapter within the text’s seven sections contains an introduction as well as a conclusion, references, and questions. Beginning with the history and development of the field, Part I discusses the characteristics and sources of predominant food microorgasnisms and their significance. Part II introduces microbial foodborne diseases, their growth and influencing factors, metabolism, and sporulation. The third Part explains the beneficial uses of microorganisms in starter cultures, biopreservation, bioprocessing, and probiotics. Part IV deals with food spoilage and methods of detection, followed by a discussion in Part V of foodborne pathogens associated with intoxication, infections, and toxicoinfections. Part VI reviews control methods with chapters on control of microbial access and removal by heat, organic acids, physical means, and combinations of methods. The final section is an in-depth look at advanced and traditional methods of microbial detection and food safety. Four appendices provide additional details on food equipment and surfaces, predictive modeling, regulatory agencies, and hazard analysis critical control points.
The first volume in a series covering the latest information in microbiology, biotechnology, and food safety aspects, this book is divided into two parts. Part I focuses on fermentation of traditional foods and beverages, such as cereal and milk products from the Orient, Africa, Latin America, and other areas. Part two addresses fermentation biolog
For centuries man has treated food to prolong its edible life, and nowadays both traditional and modern preservatives are used widely to ensure the satisfactory maintenance of quality and safety of foods. There continues to be increased public concern about the use of food additives, including preservatives, resulting from a perception that some of them may have deleterious effects on health. However, as eating habits have changed with an emphasis on what has been popularly termed a `healthy diet', there is at the same time a concern that reduction in preservative usage could lead to loss of safety and protection from food poisoning. While some preservatives are coming under increasing regulatory pressure others, particularly more natural ones, are receiving increased attention and gaining in importance and acceptability. This book supports the continued safe and effective use of preservatives within these current constraints. It therefore gives detailed information on the practical use of the major antimicrobial preservatives. Uniquely, it couples this with current understanding of their modes of action, at the levels of cellular physiology and biochemistry, in such a way as to provide a sound scientific basis for their efficacy. Such an approach also encourages the future logical development and use of preservatives.
Since centuries foods have been preserved by heating, chilling, drying, salting, conserving, acidification, oxygen-removal, fermenting, adding various preservatives, etc., and often these methods were applied in combinations. More recently the underlying principles of these traditional methods have been defined (i.e., F, t, aw, pH, Eh, competitive flora, various preservatives), and effective limits of these factors for microbial growth, survival, and death were established. Food preservation and also food quality depends in most cases on the empirical and now more often on the deliberate and intelligent application of combined preservative factors, i.e. on so-called hurdle technology. It also became obvious that futuristic food preservation methods (e.g., high hydrostatic pressure, high-intensity pulsed electric fields, high-intensity pulsed light, oscillating magnetic fields as well as food irradiation) are most effective in combination with additional hurdles. Thus, hurdle technology is also the key of food preservation in the future. Furthermore, basic aspects of hurdle technology (i.e., homeostasis, metabolic exhaustion, and stress reactions of microorganisms as well as the multitarget preservation of foods) have been recognized to be of fundamental importance and are increasingly studied in relation to hurdle technology. Different aspects of improvements of traditional foods and in the development of novel foods via hurdle technology have been covered recently in numerous articles and book chapters. However, Hurdle Technologies: Combination Treatments for Food Stability, Safety and Quality is the first work on hurdle technology in which all aspects, the possibilities and limitations of hurdle technology, are comprehensively outlined and evaluated. World-renowned on the subject, Leistner and Gould were instrumental in the development of the hurdle technology concept and in the last decades have obtained much practical experience in the application of this successful approach in the food industry worldwide.
In recent years, the potential health benefits of fermented and functional foods have made them increasingly popular among consumers. A complete overview of the physiology and functional aspects of microbes present in fermented foods and used as functional foods, Beneficial Microbes in Fermented and Functional Foods explores recent advances and pro
A timely scientific examination and definitive explanation of current food-safety technologies used in preventing, finding/detecting, removing, destroying, predicting behavior for better management of food-borne pathogens, topics of immense interest today because of consumer preference for high quality, fresh, minimally processed foods that offer consumer convenience in availability and preparation. In this book, leading researchers and practitioners in food safety present a thorough and cutting-edge examination and explanation of the various technologies at the forefront aimed at improving the safety and quality of our food supply. Topics include genomic and proteomic approaches, diagnostic techniques based on molecular, immunological biosensor-based methods, quorum sensing, pre- and post-slaughter interventions, thermal treatments for muscle foods and sous-vide products, emerging non-thermal processing technologies such as food irradiation, radio frequency, pulsed electric field, and hyrostatic pressure processing, as well as predicting the behavior and fate of microbial pathogens as related to risk assessment, modeling thermal inactivation, regulatory perspectives and performance standards, and prevention of the use of food as a weapon of terrorism
Microbial Ecology of Foods, Volume I: Factors Affecting Life and Death of Microorganisms presents valuable background information on the theoretical aspects of food microbiology. It is divided into 14 chapters that focus on the environmental factors affecting food microorganisms. These factors are temperature, irradiation, water activity, pH, acidity, organic acids, curing salts, antibiotics, gases, packaging, and cleaning systems. Each chapter explores the scientific principles of the specific environmental factor; methods of measurement; and effects on growth and viability of spoilage organisms and pathogens. The chapters also look into the control measures and interrelationships with the other factors. Some of the chapters deal with the effects of cell injury on survival and recovery of microorganisms in food and the metabolic aspects of mixed microbial populations. In each chapter, the reader has been directed to appropriate key publications for further study. This volume is particularly suitable as an undergraduate or postgraduate textbook for students who have had at least one course in general microbiology.

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