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Structure of a Computer System Brief history of computers, Von Neumann architecture, Functional units, Bus structures and Interconnection networks, Performance.Data Types and Computer Arithmetic Scalar data types, Fixed and floating point numbers, Signed numbers, Integer arithmetic, 2 s Complement multiplication, Booths algorithm, Hardware Implementation, Division restoring and Non-restoring algorithms, Floating point representations, IEEE standards, Floating point arithmetic.Control Unit DesignMachine instructions and addressing modes, Single bus CPU, Control unit operation: Instruction sequencing, Micro-operations, (Register Transfer).Hardwired control : Design methods, Design examples : Multiplier CU.Micro-programmed control : Basic concepts, Microinstruction-sequencing and execution, Micro-program control, Applications of microprogramming, Emulator.Processor DesignCPU Architecture, Register organization, Instruction set-instruction types, instruction formats (Intel, Motorola processors), Instruction cycles, Instruction pipelining, Types of operands, Addressing modes (Intel, Motorola processors), ALU design-ALU organization. Memory Organisation Characteristics of memory systems, Internal and external memory, Chip packaging. Main Memory - ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, RAM : SRAM, DRAM, SDRAM, RDRAM, error correction.High-speed memories : Cache memory, Organization and mapping, Replacement algorithms, Cache coherence, MESI protocol.Interleaved and associative memories, Performance characteristics, Virtual memory : Main memory allocation, Segmentation, Paging.Secondary storage : Magnetic disk, Tape, DAT, RAID, Optical memory, CDROM, DVD.I/O OrganisationInput/output systems, Programmed I/O, Interrupt Driven I/O, I/O channels, Direct Memory Access (DMA), Buses and standard Interfaces : Synchronous, Asynchronous, Parallel, Serial, PCI, SCSI, USB Ports.Peripherals : Keyboard, Mouse, Scanners, Video Displays, Dot-matrix, Desk-jet, Laser Printers,ultiprocessor ConfigurationsClosely coupled and loosely coupled multiprocessor architectures, Problems of bus contentions. Interprocess communications, Coprocessor and I/O Processor, Bus controller, Bus arbitration, System Bus-Uni-Bus, Multibus.RISC and Superscalar Processors : RISC - features, Register file, RISC Vs CISC, Superscalar processors - Overview, Organization.