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Mozambique has great potential in natural gas reserves and if liquefied/commercialized the sum of taxes and other fiscal revenue from natural gas will, at its peak, reach roughly one third of total fiscal revenue. Recent developments in the natural resource sector have triggered a fresh round of much needed infrastructure investment. This paper uses the DIGNAR model to simulate alternative public investment scaling-up plans in alternative LNG market scenarios. Results show that while a conservative approach, which simply awaits LNG revenues, would miss significant current growth opportunities, an aggressive approach would likely meet absorptive capacity constraints and imply a much bigger (and, in an adverse scenario, unsustainable) build-up of public debt. A gradual scaling up approach represents indeed a desirable path, as it allows anticipating some, though not all, of the LNG revenue and, even in an adverse scenario, keeping public debt at sustainable levels. Structural reforms affecting selection, governance and execution of public investment projects would significantly enhance the extent to which public capital is accumulated and impact non-resource growth and, ultimately, debt sustainability.
This paper presents the DIGNAR (Debt, Investment, Growth, and Natural Resources) model, which can be used to analyze the debt sustainability and macroeconomic effects of public investment plans in resource-abundant developing countries. DIGNAR is a dynamic, stochastic model of a small open economy. It has two types of households, including poor households with no access to financial markets, and features traded and nontraded sectors as well as a natural resource sector. Public capital enters production technologies, while public investment is subject to inefficiencies and absorptive capacity constraints. The government has access to different types of debt (concessional, domestic and external commercial) and a resource fund, which can be used to finance public investment plans. The resource fund can also serve as a buffer to absorb fiscal balances for given projections of resource revenues and public investment plans. When the fund is drawn down to its minimal value, a combination of external and domestic borrowing can be used to cover the fiscal gap in the short to medium run. Fiscal adjustments through tax rates and government non-capital expenditures—which may be constrained by ceilings and floors, respectively—are then triggered to maintain debt sustainability. The paper illustrates how the model can be particularly useful to assess debt sustainability in countries that borrow against future resource revenues to scale up public investment.
This publication highlights Mozambique’s remarkably strong growth over the two decades since the end of the civil war in 1992, as well as the major challenges that remain for the country to rise out of poverty and further its economic development. Chapters explore such topics as the role of megaprojects and their relationship to jobs and growth; infrastructure and public investment; Mozambique's quest for inclusive growth; developing the agricultural sector; and building a social protection floor.
The staff report for the 2013 Article IV Consultation for the Republic of Mozambique focuses on the development agenda and appropriate policy priorities to successfully transition to a resource-rich era. These priorities include skillful medium-term management of the impact of developing coal and gas resources, high public investment spending on growth, external competitiveness, and through increased commercial borrowing, on debt sustainability and investment planning. Mozambique has a high rate of public investment of which more than half is financed domestically. The authorities are working to strengthen their project selection and economic profitability analysis capacity, and to assess the impact of related borrowing on public debt.
This paper discusses Mozambique’s Second Review Under the Policy Support Instrument (PSI) and Request for Modification of Assessment Criteria. Mozambique’s economy remains buoyant and recovered quickly from the severe floods in early 2013. Growth is estimated at 7 percent for 2013, with strong performance in coal mining, construction, transport, communications, and financial services. Inflation remains low notwithstanding accommodative monetary policy and rapid credit expansion. The real effective exchange rate was broadly stable in 2013 and a nominal appreciation against the South African rand helped to limit inflation. Program performance to date has been broadly satisfactory. The IMF staff recommends the completion of the second PSI review.
This paper discusses Mozambique’s Third Review Under the Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) and Request for Modification of Performance Criteria. Performance under the program has been broadly satisfactory so far in 2005. All quantitative and structural performance criteria have been met through end-September. The two structural benchmarks for end-June were not met; however, one of the corresponding measures was implemented in August and the other is expected to be implemented by end-April 2006. The fiscal program is also on track.

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