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Signi?cant progress has been made in the development of neural prostheses for restoration of human functions and improvement of the quality of life. Biomedical engineers and neuroscientists around the world are working to improve the design and performance of existing devices and to develop novel devices for arti?cial vision, arti?cial limbs, and brain-machine interfaces. This book, Implantable Neural Prostheses 2: Techniques and Engineering Approaches, is part two of a two-volume sequence that describes state-of-the-art advances in techniques associated with implantable neural prosthetic devices. The techniques covered include biocompatibility and biostability, hermetic packaging, electrochemical techniques for neural stimulation applications, novel electrode materials and testing, thin-?lm ?exible microelectrode arrays, in situ char- terization of microelectrode arrays, chip-size thin-?lm device encapsulation, microchip-embedded capacitors and microelectronics for recording, stimulation, and wireless telemetry. The design process in the development of medical devices is also discussed. Advances in biomedical engineering, microfabrication technology, and neu- science have led to improved medical-device designs and novel functions. However, many challenges remain. This book focuses on the engineering approaches, R&D advances, and technical challenges of medical implants from an engineering p- spective. We are grateful to leading researchers from academic institutes, national laboratories, as well as design engineers and professionals from the medical device industry who have contributed to the book. Part one of this series covers designs of implantable neural prosthetic devices and their clinical applications.
Significant progress has been made in the development of neural prostheses to restore human functions and improve the quality of human life. Biomedical engineers and neuroscientists around the world are working to improve design and performance of existing devices and to develop novel devices for artificial vision, artificial limbs, and brain–machine interfaces. This book, Implantable Neural Prostheses 1: Devices and Applications,ispart one of a two-book series and describes state-of-the-art advances in techniques associated with implantable neural prosthetic devices and their applications. Devices covered include sensory prosthetic devices, such as visual implants, cochlear implants, auditory midbrain implants, and spinal cord stimulators. Motor prosthetic devices, such as deep brain stimulators, Bion microstimu- tors, the brain control and sensing interface, and cardiac electro-stimulation devices are also included. Progress in magnetic stimulation that may offer a non-invasive approach to prosthetic devices is introduced. Regulatory approval of implantable medical devices in the United States and Europe is also discussed.
This book provides readers with basic principles of the electrochemistry of the electrodes used in modern, implantable neural prostheses. The authors discuss the boundaries and conditions in which the electrodes continue to function properly for long time spans, which are required when designing neural stimulator devices for long-term in vivo applications. Two kinds of electrode materials, titanium nitride and iridium are discussed extensively, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The influence of the counter electrode on the safety margins and electrode lifetime in a two electrode system is explained. Electrode modeling is handled in a final chapter.
The prospect of interfacing the nervous system with electronic devices to stimulate or record from neural tissue suggests numerous possibilities in the field of neuroprosthetics. While the creation of a "six million dollar man" may still be far into the future, neural prostheses are rapidly becoming viable theories for a broad range of patients with injury or disease of the nervous system. Neural Prostheses for Restoration of Sensory and Motor Function presents a general review of exciting scientific discoveries that show the feasibility of using electronic devices to restore motor function in paralyzed patients. The book is divided into two sections. The first section details some of the most successful sensory and motor prosthetic devices available. It pays particular attention to the present usefulness and future promise of these devices. It explores different approaches to the use of functional electrical stimulation for the restoration of motor control. The second section highlights the growing field of brain-implantable devices for the control of artificial prosthetic devices or neural prosthetics. It considers the possible scientific and clinical advantages of using implanted devices to record signals from the nervous system and the use of those signals for the restoration of neurological function. The book presents research data that relates to the feasibility of using brain-controlled neurorobotic devices. It offers a new perspective on the practice of combining neurochemical and neurophysiological information to create prosthetic control devices that restore chemical balance to the brain. Neural Prostheses for Restoration of Sensory and Motor Function examines several different types of neural prosthetic devices as well as recent advances in research for novel devices to restore sensory and motor function in patients with neural damage. It provides authoritative information on neural prosthetic techniques and applications - specifically in relation to the sensory and motor systems of the brain.
Neural prostheses have been used for centuries as structural replacements, in particular for injuries to the cranium. And today, neural prostheses are designed to restore a broad range of nervous system functions previously lost due to trauma or disease. While their complexity may vary from nerve conduits to prosthetic brain implants, neural ......

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