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A uniquely comprehensive and integrated account of neurotransmitter modulation. Suitable for neuroscientists and non-specialists alike.
This volume provides an introduction to the general principles of neuromodulation--the key neurobiological process for understanding how the brain works. Emphasizing ion channels and biochemical mechanisms of protein phosphorylation, the book shows how neurons regulate their intracellular calcium concentration by modulating the activity of certain ion channels. It goes on to explain the function of intracellular calcium and describes some fascinating neuromodulatory phenomena in the mammalian brain that have long awaited the kind of mechanistic investigations possible in simpler systems. Bridging the gap between neurochemistry and neurophysiology, the authors make complex concepts and research approaches comprehensible to scientists in either field.
This book presents information from different scientific disciplines - behavioral, biochemical, electrophysiological, anatomical, and medical - to detail the interaction of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) with other neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in the brain. Internationally recognized experts discuss the interaction of DA with monoaminergic transmitters such as norepinephrine, GABA, acetylcholine, and serotonin, as well as neuropeptide neurotransmitters/neuromodulators such as neurotensin, cholecystokinin, and the opioid peptides. This is also the first book to include data from positron emission tomography (PET) studies examining the interaction of neurotransmitters in the brain.
Neurotransmitter Release: The Neuromuscular Junction is a collection of papers presented at a small meeting organized in the University of Milan to honor Bruno Ceccarelli. Ceccarelli was particularly interested in the structure and functioning of the neuromuscular junction and spent the rest of his career characterizing the process of neurotransmitter release, and eventually providing the strongest available support for the widely accepted ""vesicle hypothesis"" of neurotransmitter release. The meeting was intended to gather as many scientists who had been directly in touch with Bruno as possible and to discuss together problems of Bruno's interest. Organized into 20 chapters, the book first discusses the organelles of distinct secretory pathways involved in distinct types of neuronal signaling, such as synapsins, synaptophysin , and synaptobrevin. It then examines the role of coated vesicles, acetylcholine compartments, and potassium and calcium channels on neurotransmission processes. Other topics considered are the regeneration of nerve-evoked neurotransmission; the single-channel recordings of KNa in avian sensory neurons; the modulation of voltage-dependent calcium currents in identified snail neurons; and the agonistic/antagonistic action of calcium channel in mammalian peripheral neurons. Cross-talks between receptors coupled to calcium currents and between different intracellular signaling are provided in the last chapters of the book. These chapters also look into the relevance of lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid to cell-to-cell communication in the central nervous system. This book is an invaluable source for scientists, researchers, and students who are interested in basic neurology.
Neurons in the nervous system organize into complex networks and their functions are precisely controlled. The most important means for neurons to communicate with each other is transmission through chemical synapses, where the release of neurotransmitters by the presynaptic nerve terminal of one neuron influences the function of a second neuron. Since the discovery of chemical neurotransmission by Otto Loewi in the 1920s, great progress has been made in our understanding of mol- ular mechanisms of neurotransmitter release. The last decade has seen an explosion of knowledge in this field. The aim of Molecular Mechanisms of Neurotransmitter Release is to provide up-to-date, in-depth coverage of essentially all major mole- lar mechanisms of neurotransmitter release. The contributors have made great efforts to write concisely but with sufficient background information, and to use figures/diagrams to present clearly key concepts or experiments. It is hoped that this book may serve as a learning tool for neuroscience students, a solid reference for neuroscientists, and a source of knowledge for people who have a general interest in neuroscience. I was fortunate to be able to gather contributions from a group of outstanding scientists. I thank them for their efforts. In particular, I want to thank Dr. Erik Jorgensen who offered valuable suggestions about the book in addition to contrib- ing an excellent chapter. I thank US National Science Foundation and National Institute of Health for their supports.
Published since 1959, International Review of Neurobiology is a well-known series appealing to neuroscientists, clinicians, psychologists, physiologists, and pharmacologists. Led by an internationally renowned editorial board, this important serial publishes both eclectic volumes made up of timely reviews and thematic volumes that focus on recent progress in a specific area of neurobiology research. With recent advancements in new knowledge, it has become evident that psychostimulants and related drugs of abuse are influencing our central nervous system (CNS) remarkably and could alter their function for a longtime. This volume is the first to focus on substance abuse induced brain pathology in the widest sense as it covers alterations in neuronal, glial and endothelial cell functions under the influence of acute or chronic usage of substance abuse.
Neurophysiology of Neuroendocrine Neurons provides researchersand students with not only an understanding of neuroendocrine cellelectrophysiology, but also an appreciation of how this modelsystem affords access to virtually all parts of the neuron fordetailed study - something unique compared to most types of neuronin the brain. Chapters range from those describing the rich historyand current state of in vivo recordings, highlighting the preciserelationship between the patterns of action potential discharge inthese neurons and hormone release, to in vitro approaches whereneuroendocrine neurons can be precisely identified and theirmembrane properties, morphology, and synaptic responses, directlyexamined. • Written by a team of internationally renownedresearchers, each chapter presents a succinct summary of the verylatest developments in the field • Includes an evaluation of different experimentalapproaches, both in vivo and in vitro, and how the resulting dataare interpreted • Both print and enhanced e-book versions areavailable • Illustrated in full colour throughout This is the first volume in a new Series ‘Masterclass in Neuroendocrinology’ , a co- publicationbetween Wiley and the INF (International Neuroendocrine Federation)that aims to illustrate highest standards and encourage the use ofthe latest technologies in basic and clinical research and hopes toprovide inspiration for further exploration into the exciting fieldof neuroendocrinology.
The transmission of the nervous impulse is always from the dendritic branches and the cell body to the axon or functional process. Every neuron, then, possesses a receptor apparatus, the body and the dendritic prolongations, an apparatus of emission, the axon, and the apparatus of distribution, the terminal arborization of the nerve fibers. I designated the foregoing principle: the theory of dynamic polarization (Cajal 1923). Ever since the beautiful drawings from Golgi and Cajal, we have been familiar with the organisation of neurones into dendritic, somatic and axonal compartments. Cajal proposed that these cellular compartments were specialised, resulting in his concept of ^dynamic polarisation'. He considered dendrites to be passive elements that simply transferred information from inputs to the soma. Since the discovery that dendrites of many neural populations release neuroactive substances and in doing so, alter neuronal output, it is now apparent that this theory requires qualification. This book presents recent developments in the neurophysiology of dendritic release of several chemical classes of transmitters in a number of different areas of the mammalian central nervous system. Once released from a neuron, these substances can act as neurotransmitters and/or neuromodulators, to autoregulate the original neuron, its synaptic inputs, and adjacent cells or, by volume transmission, to affect distant cells. In some systems, dendritic transmitter release is part independent of secretion from axon terminal signifying a selective control of the dendritic compartment.
Extrasynaptic transmission is a unifying term for a wide variety of cellular processes, in which outside of synaptic terminals transmitter substances activate extrasynaptic receptors. Whereas “synaptic transmission” immediately refers to a process occurring at nerve terminals in which the arrival of a presynaptic impulse evokes exocytosis followed by a postsynaptic response within a millisecond time scale, extrasynaptic transmission has a wide diversity of ultrastructural and therefore mechanistic associated phenomena. In comparison to synaptic, extrasynaptic exocytosis may last for seconds or even minutes, thus expanding the timing of neuronal signaling. Extrasynaptic transmission has now been demonstrated in central and peripheral neurons of vertebrates and invertebrates, and involves many different types of transmitter substances than include low molecular weight transmitters (acetilcholine, GABA, glutamate, ATP, and biogenic amines) and peptides (substance P, vasopressin and others). It may occur when transmitters leak out from the synaptic cleft and activate extrasynaptic receptors in neighboring neurons or glial cells, or when axonal varicosities, dendrites or the somata release transmitters in the absence of postsynaptic counterparts. The release mechanisms also vary from one neuron type to another and from one neuronal compartment to another. In some cases, clear vesicles are apposed to the resting plasma membrane, as in presynaptic terminals. In other cases, transmitters are packed onto dense core vesicles that rest at a distance from the release sites. In between, there are multiple morphological combinations that point to complementary mechanisms in different compartments of the same neuron and some times, even in the same compartment. For example, serotonergic varicosities may combine clear and dense core vesicles in stereotyped arrays. This diversity adds complexity to the nervous system and raises many questions that are waiting for answers. Extrasynaptic transmission may be the main source of transmitter molecules causing volume transmission, however this still lacks direct demonstration. From the physiological point of view, one may ask how does the neuronal firing pattern evokes synaptic or extrasynaptic transmitter release or what are the physiological effects of these modes of transmission. From the behavioral point of view it becomes interesting to explore how circuits and therefore behaviors are modulated. Some neurological disfunctions may also be related to deficiencies in extrasynaptic transmission, however, again, direct studies are still lacking. Developmental and evolutionary biologists may also find the topic inspiring. Extrasynaptic transmission not only expands our view about how the nervous system works, but also requires a change in the way we plan our research. New technological and computational tools are now being applied to analyze intracellular and extracellular transmitter mobilizations or long term changes of neuronal circuits. New definitions and mechanisms may become visible. In the meanwhile, this seems to be a good moment for a first common effort to analyze and discuss extrasynaptic transmission in different systems and from different perspectives.
Creating Coordination in the Cerebellum provides a multidisciplinary collection of chapters on the cerebellum with topics covering the entire spectrum from development and molecular neurobiology, cell physiology and plasticity to motor control, system physiology, functional imaging and pathology. The book not only presents novel discoveries obtained with recently developed technologies, but also gives new general concepts in global issues of cerebellar development and functions. By doing so it sets the standard for cerebellar research of the 21st century. * Provides a complete overview of current cerebellar research * Includes color illustrations * Contains contributions from renowned cerebellar scientists
It has been known for half a century that neurotransmitters are released in preformed quanta, that the quanta represent transmitter-storing vesicles, and that release occurs by exocytosis. The focus of this book is twofold. In the first part, the molecular events of exocytosis are analysed. In the second part of the book, the presynaptic receptors for endogenous chemical signals are presented that make neurotransmitter release a highly regulated process.
Featuring the contributions of leading faculty, this new edition provides a succinct overview of the most important aspects of pharmacology necessary for a basic understanding of the subject. It reviews the concepts, clinical applications and side effects of pharmacology, placing an emphasis on practical applications of the material, whenever possible. More than 480 full-color illustrations explain important processes, while color-coded boxes for major drugs, therapeutic overviews, clinical problems, and trade names—as well as USMLE-style self-assessment questions with answers and rationales—reinforce your mastery of the information. A consistent style of writing—and more focused, concise content—provide for better learning of the essentials. Online access to Student Consult—where you’ll find 15 pharmacology animations...150 USMLE-style questions...and more—further enhances your study and prepares you for exams. Includes online access to Student Consult where you’ll find USMLE-style questions, animations showing the actions of various important toxins, and much more. Focuses on the essential aspects of pharmacology for a solid foundation of knowledge in the subject. Includes more than 480 full-color illustrations that explain key pharmacologic processes. Provides between 4 and 6 USMLE-style self-assessment questions at the end of each chapter—with answers and full explanations in the appendix—that help you prepare for exams and master the material. Uses a templated format that promotes more effective and efficient learning. Presents color-coded boxes in each chapter that emphasize key points. Features a clinical emphasis throughout on both the basic science of pharmacology and its clinical relevance. Includes new Gold Standard content on Student Consult with 200 Professional Drug Monographs for additional information on generic and brand names, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, indications and dosage, drug interactions, patient education and much more! Features a more consistent style of writing—as well as focused, concise content—for enhanced learning of the essentials. Presents chapters in a re-arranged order for a more logical approach to learning. Includes additional biochemistry and physiology information in the introduction for each section for greater understanding.
oltage-gated calcium channels are essential mediators of a range of physiological functions, including the communication between nerve Vcells, the regulation of heart beat, muscle contraction, and secretion of hormones such as insulin. Consequently, these channels are critical phar macological targets in the treatment of a variety of disorders, such as epi lepsy, hypertension, and pain. Voltage-gated calcium channels have there fore been subject to intense study by numerous investigators over the past few decades, and an immense body of work has accumulated. In this book, we provide the first comprehensive overview of our current state of knowl edge concerning this exciting field of research. Leading off with a general review of calcium signaling and techniques to measure calcium channel ac tivity, the book delves into a provocative overview of the history of the cal cium channel field, contributed by one of the key pioneers in the field. Dr. Richard Tsien. This is followed by an in depth review of the biochemical and molecular biological characterization of calcium channel genes by Drs. Catterall and Snutch whose research has resulted in major advances in the calcium channel field. A number of chapters are dedicated towards various aspects of calcium channel structure and function, including channel gat ing, permeation, modulation and interactions with members of the exo- totic machinery—contributed by both established leaders and rising stars in the field.
Intercellular communication via bioactive substances occurs in virtually all multicellular systems. Chemical neurotransmission in the vertebrate nervous system represents a form of signaling of this type. The biology of chemical neurotransmission is complex, involving transmitter synthesis, transport, and release by the presynaptic neuron; signal generation in the target tissue; and mechanisms for termination of the response. The focus of this book is on one aspect of this scheme: the diverse electrophysiological effects induced by different neurotransmitters on targets cells. In recent years, astonishing progress has been made in elucidating the specific physiological signals mediated by neurotransmitters in the verte brate nervous system, yet, in our view, this has not been adequately recog nized, perhaps because the new concepts have yet to filter into neuroscience textbooks. Nevertheless, the principles of neurotransmitter action are critical to advances in many areas of neuroscience, including molecular neurobiol ogy, neurochemistry, neuropharmacology, physiological psychology, and clinical neuroscience. It was the need for a sourcebook that prompted us to engage a group of neurophysiologists to prepare the chapters in this volume. However, there was an additional reason for this book: more and more it seemed that the field, if not yet having reached maturity, at least was ap proaching adolescence, with strengths in some areas and healthy conflicts in others. At this stage of development a textbook can help to define a field, clarify problems to be resolved, and identify areas for future investigation.
Cholinergic Function and Dysfunction
Neuronal nicotinic receptors are key molecules for signal transduction in a number of neuronal pathways. They are widely distributed in the brain and are known to be involved in cognitive tasks, including learning and memory, in smoking addiction and in several brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's dementias, schizophrenia, and epilepsy. This book provides a comprehensive review of the field, starting with a historical perspective and dealing with the molecular structure of these receptors, their biophysical and pharmacological properties, their distribution in central and peripheral nervous systems, and their major involvement in brain functions. Particular emphasis is paid to drugs (both new and old) that are useful in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases involving neuronal nicotinic receptors. Finally, the relevance of these receptors in smoking addiction is carefully evaluated, together with future trends and the latest results.
This book is an introductory text in neuroendocrinology for undergraduate students.
It is now about 10 years since the first edition of Nerve Cells and Nervous Systems was published. There have been many important advances across the whole field of neuro science since 1990 and it was obvious that the first edition had become much less useful than when it was published. Hence this new edition. I have attempted to keep to the aims of the first edition by presenting the general principles of neuroscience in the context of experimental evidence. As with the first edition, the selection of material to include, or exclude, has been difficult and invariably reflects my personal biases. I hope that not too many readers will be disappointed with the selections. I have unashamedly retained material, and, in particular, illustrations where I think they remain of importance to an understanding of the field and to its historical development. As before, I have attempted as reasonable a coverage as possible within the confines of a book that should be easy to carry around, to handle and, I hope, to read. The book should be useful for anyone studying the nervous system at both undergraduate and immediate postgraduate levels. In particular, under graduates reading neuroscience or any course containing a neuroscience component, such as physiology, pharmacology, biomedical sciences or psychology, as well as medicine and veterinary medicine should find the book helpful.

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