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"Astronomy and Astrophysics Abstracts" appearing twice a year has become oneof the fundamental publications in the fields of astronomy, astrophysics andneighbouring sciences. It is the most important English-language abstracting journal in the mentioned branches. The abstrats are classified under more than a hundred subject categories, thus permitting a quick survey of the whole extended material. The AAA is a valuable and important publication for all students and scientists working in the fields of astronomy and related sciences. As such it represents a necessary ingredient of any astronomical library all over the world.
Infrared astronomy has undergone an enormous revolution during the last decade. Despite the great technical difficulties of building detectors in a cryogenic environment, the scientific advances in infrared astronomy have been astounding. In the near future many more advances can be expected from still newer developments in telescope and detector designs. High quality detector arrays and passively cooled telescopes are very promising techniques for achieving considerably larger apertures. This volume contains the refereed papers from the workshop on 'Next Generation Infrared Observatory', dealing with all new aspects of future infrared telescopes.
Up-to-date accounts of recent and future advances in short-wavelength spectroscopy of laboratory and cosmic plasmas.
When I became President of International Astronomical Union Commission 44 for the triennial period 1985-1988, several members of the Organizing Committee and I agreed that it would be a good idea for our Commission to host a conference on observatories in space in view of their increasingly important role in astronomi cal research. IAU Colloquium Number 123 "Observatories in Earth Orbit and Beyond" is the first colloquium sponsored by IAU Com mission 44 on Astronomy from Space, although Commission 44 has co-sponsored numerous colloquia and symposia in the past. The past two decades have seen a flourishing of astronomical observatories in space. Over a dozen orbiting observatories have opened up a new window on the universe, providing hitherto una vailable data in the electromagnetic spectral range from gamma-ray, X-ray, ultraviolet to infrared and radio. This has clearly demon strated the crucial nature of astronomical observations from space. The invited talks of present colloquium consist primarily of reviews of currently operating observatories in space, future observatories that have been approved by sponsoring government or space agencies, the launch systems of U.S.A., E.S.A., U.S.S.R. and Japan, discussions of various orbits and sites (such as the Moon), and alternate approaches in designing space observatories. Several panel discus sions addressed those issues as well as the major unsolved problems of astronomy. Contributed poster papers included descriptions of space observatories that are in planning stage.
Based on years of research conducted at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Low-Energy Lunar Trajectory Design provides high-level information to mission managers and detailed information to mission designers about low-energy transfers between Earth and the moon. The book answers high-level questions about the availability and performance of such transfers in any given month and year. Low-energy lunar transfers are compared with various other types of transfers, and placed within the context of historical missions. Using this book, designers may reconstruct any transfer described therein, as well as design similar transfers with particular design parameters. An Appendix, “Locating the Lagrange Points,” and a useful list of terms and constants completes this technical reference. Surveys thousands of possible trajectories that may be used to transfer spacecraft between Earth and the moon, including transfers to lunar libration orbits, low lunar orbits, and the lunar surface Provides information about the methods, models, and tools used to design low-energy lunar transfers Includes discussion about the variations of these transfers from one month to the next, and the important operational aspects of implementing a low-energy lunar transfer Additional discussions address navigation, station-keeping, and spacecraft systems issues
ROSAT Observations G. HASINGER Max-Planck-Institut flir extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching, Germany Abstract. This review describes the most recent advances in the study of the extragalactic soft X-ray background and what we can learn about its constituents. The deepest pointed observations with the ROSAT PSPC are discussed. The logN-logS relation is presented, which reaches to the faintest X-ray fluxes and to the highest AGN surface densities ever achieved. The N(>S) relation shows a 2 density in excess of 400 deg- at the faintest fluxes and a flattening below the Einstein Deep Survey limit. About 60% of the extragalactic background has been resolved in the deepest field. Detailed source spectra and first optical and radio identifications will be discussed. The results are put into perspective of the higher energy X -ray background. Key words: X-rays, background radiations, active galactic nuclei. 1. Introduction The extragalactic X-ray background (XRB), discovered about 30 years ago, has been studied extensively with many X-ray experiments, in particular with the satel lites HEAO I and II (see ego Boldt 1987) and with ROSAT (e. g. Hasinger et aI. , 1993). Figure 1 shows a compilation of some of the most recent spectral measure ments for the X-ray background. Over the energy range from 3 to about 100 keY its spectrum can be well approximated by an optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung model with kT ~ 40 keY, while at lower X-ray energies a steepening into a new component has been observed observed (e. g.
Take a journey into the New Space Frontier! It is easy to imagine that the space shuttle's retirement has edged the Space Age toward closure, at least in terms of human flight beyond the bounds of earth. In fact, there are more people-carrying ships being constructed now than at any time since Yuri Gagarin became the first man in space half a century ago. Some are already servicing the International Space Station - which, incidentally, has ensured a permanent human presence in space for the last two decades, and is set to continue and expand for decades yet to come. What's more, NASA is no longer the only big player in the space game. Commercial, non-governmental space exploration is becoming a reality rather than just a pipe dream. What orbital adventures await us in the next five decades? Will humans ever again head into deep space, as the Apollo astronauts once did? NASA's new hardware is aimed toward asteroid missions, and ultimately, Mars, but there is a significant chance that a government funded space agency will not be the only - or even the first - organization to send humans across the solar system. Get ready to experience the excitement of adventure with New Space Frontier. Through gorgeous photography and engaging writing, noted space and science author Piers Bizony speculates beyond just today's hardware and explores what might be possible for the next generation.
"Beyond Einstein science" is a term that applies to a set of new scientific challenges at the intersection of physics and astrophysics. Observations of the cosmos now have the potential to extend our basic physical laws beyond where 20th-century research left them. Such observations can provide stringent new tests of Einstein's general theory of relativity, indicate how to extend the Standard Model of elementary-particle physics, and -- if direct measurements of gravitational waves were to be made -- give astrophysics an entirely new way of observing the universe. In 2003, NASA, working with the astronomy and astrophysics communities, prepared a research roadmap entitled Beyond Einstein: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. This roadmap proposed that NASA undertake space missions in five areas in order to study dark energy, black holes, gravitational radiation, and the inflation of the early universe, to test Einstein's theory of gravitation. This study assesses the five proposed Beyond Einstein mission areas to determine potential scientific impact and technical readiness. Each mission is explored in great detail to aid decisions by NASA regarding both the ordering of the remaining missions and the investment strategy for future technology development within the Beyond Einstein Program.
Written with his trademark combination of wit and accessible science, and updated to include the latest theories on asteroids and climate change, this is a must-read book for anyone with an interest in popular science in general, and how the world might end in particular.
This book serves as a fascinating progress report on the outer solar system, offering a way to better appreciate the newest findings. It unlocks some of the mysteries surrounding Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto — from the drama of their discoveries to the startling results of Voyager 2’s historic 1989 encounter with Neptune.
Kids ask the darndest things . . . and here are the answers—all in one helpful book! Anyone who has ever been a kid, raised a kid, or spent any time with kids knows that asking questions is a critical part of growing up. Kids have curious minds and they come up with some very interesting questions. But the truth is adults don't always know the answers. The Handy Answer Book for Kids (and Parents) comes to the rescue. Written with a child's imagination in mind, this easy-to-understand book is a launching pad for curious young minds and a life raft for parents at wits end. It addresses nearly 800 queries with enough depth and detail to both satisfy the curiosity of persistent young inquisitors and provide parents with a secure sense of a job well done. It'll equip every parent for those difficult, absurd, or sometimes funny questions from their kids, such as Is there life on Mars? Do rivers ever dry up? Why are there wars? Is there such a thing as a funny bone? Why do dogs bark? Why is the sky blue? Why do people have to grow old? Why do people speak different languages?
Provides descriptions of every kind of atmospheric and astronomical phenomena, including rainbows, sundogs, meteor showers, and eclipses.
Space has become increasingly crowded since the end of the Cold War, with new countries, companies, and even private citizens operating satellites and becoming spacefarers. This book offers general readers a valuable primer on space policy from an international perspective. It examines the competing themes of space competition and cooperation while providing readers with an understanding of the basics of space technology, diplomacy, commerce, science, and military applications. The recent expansion of human space activity poses new challenges to existing treaties and other governance tools for space, increasing the likelihood of conflict over a diminishing pool of beneficial locations and resources close to Earth. Drawing on more than twenty years of experience in international space policy debates, James Clay Moltz examines possible avenues for cooperation among the growing pool of space actors, considering their shared interests in space traffic management, orbital debris control, division of the radio frequency spectrum, and the prevention of military conflict. Moltz concludes with policy recommendations for enhanced international collaboration in space situational awareness, scientific exploration, and restraining harmful military activities.
The activities in this book reinforce basic concepts in the study of the universe, including the planets, stars, comets, astronomers and their tools, and space travel. General background information, suggested activities, questions for discussion, and answers are included. Encourage students to keep completed pages in a folder or notebook for reference and review.
A first, comprehensive account of the development of Europe’s highly successful space programme.- Explains the politics, science and organisation of the European Space Programme and the many technological achievements of its satellites and rockets.- Highlights the major contributions of the European Space Agency’s scientific and applications programmes and puts them in a global perspective.- Focuses on Europe placing the various national programmes in a European context.

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