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Terrestrial carbon balance is uncertain at the regional and global scale. A significant source of variability in mid-latitude ecosystems is related to the timing and duration of phenological phases. Spring phenology, in particular, has disproportionate effects on the annual carbon balance. However, the traditional phenological indices that are based on leaf-out and flowering times of select indicator species are not universally amenable for predicting the temporal dynamics of ecosystem carbon and water exchange. Phenology of Ecosystem Processes evaluates current applications of traditional phenology in carbon and H2O cycle research, as well as the potential to identify phenological signals in ecosystem processes themselves. The book summarizes recent progress in the understanding of the seasonal dynamics of ecosystem carbon and H2O fluxes, the novel use of various methods (stable isotopes, time-series, forward and inverse modeling), and the implications for remote sensing and global carbon cycle modeling. Each chapter includes a literature review, in order to present the state-of-the-science in the field and enhance the book’s usability as an educational aid, as well as a case study to exemplify the use and applicability of various methods. Chapters that apply a specific methodology summarize the successes and challenges of particular methods for quantifying the seasonal changes in ecosystem carbon, water and energy fluxes. The book will benefit global change researchers, modelers, and advanced students.
Savannas are the most widespread ecosystem in the tropics and as such are subjected to great human pressure that may result in massive soil degradation. The book addresses the role of species in the function of savanna ecosystems. It is shown that savannas are enormously diverse and that four factors determine the function of savanna ecosystems: Plant Available Moisture; Plant Available Nutrients; Fire; Herbivores.
This series presents studies that have used the paradigm of landscape ecology. Other approaches, both to landscape and landscape ecology are common, but in the last decade landscape ecology has become distinct from its predecessors and its contemporaries. Landscape ecology addresses the relationships among spatial patterns, temporal patterns and ecological processes. The effect of spatial configurations on ecological processes is fundamental. When human activity is an important variable affecting those relationships, landscape ecology includes it. Spatial and temporal scales are as large as needed for comprehension of system processes and the mosaic included may be very heterogeneous. Intellec tual utility and applicability of results are valued equally. The Inter national Association for Landscape Ecology sponsors this series of studies in order to introduce and disseminate some of the new knowledge that is being produced by this exciting new environmental science. Gray Merriam Ottawa, Canada Foreword This is a book about real nature, or as close to real as we know - a nature of heterogeneous landscapes, wild and humanized, fine-grained and coarse-grained, wet and dry, hilly and flat, temperate and not so temper ate. Real nature is never uniform. At whatever spatial scale we examine nature, we encounter patchiness. If we were to look down from high above at a landscape of millions of hectares, using a zoom lens to move in and out from broad overview to detailed inspection of a square meter we would see that patterns visible at different scales overlay one another.
In contrast with the fundamental ecological expectation that similarity induces competition and loss of species, temporal dynamics allows similar species to co-occur. In fact, the coexistence of similar species contributes significantly to species diversity and could affect ecosystem response to climate change. However, because temporal processes take place over time, they have often been a challenge to document or even to identify. Temporal Dynamics and Ecological Process brings together studies that have met this challenge and present two specific aspects of temporal processes: reproductive scheduling and the stable coexistence of similar species. By using plants to extract general principles, these studies uncover deep ties between temporal niche dynamics and the above central ecological issues, thereby providing a better understanding of what drives temporal processes in nature. Written by leading scientists in the field, this title will be a valuable source of reference to research ecologists and those interested in temporal ecology.
Abstract: Timing of leaf out in woody plants is being affected by global climate change, with cascading effects on associated organisms and ecosystem processes. However, the timing and responsiveness of this important phenological event are not well understood, especially in relation to the geographic origin of species and populations. This study assessed the effect of anomalous spring warming on leaf out timing for woody plant species and individuals from a range of taxa and geographic origins. Timing of leaf out was assessed across 4years (2011–2014) for 478 plants, representing 96 species and 21 genera, planted together in a common environment at The Morton Arboretum, Lisle, Illinois, USA. An anomalously warm spring in 2012 strongly affected leaf out timing, advancing mean leaf out date for every species by an average of 31days across all individuals. Responsiveness was related to species traits, as species classified as early‐successional, with diffuse‐porous wood anatomy, or with a weak chilling requirement were much more responsive. There was strong variation among individuals within a species in leaf out timing and responsiveness. These patterns were somewhat related to geographical origin of the individual, but were not consistent among species or genera. High responsiveness of leaf out to anomalous spring warming, which is forecasted to be more common with global climate change, could have important implications for climate change adaptation, assisted migration, and ecological interactions. Chilling requirements may have limited responsiveness for some species, which could affect competitive dynamics within plant communities. Through such interactions and direct effects on woody plant species, variation in spring leaf out phenology will likely affect biodiversity and functioning in many ecosystems.
Adopting the novel approach of viewing the role of fungi from the perspective of ecosystem functions, this book examines the importance of fungi in soil formation, plant primary production, sustenance of secondary producers, and regulation of plant and animal populations and communities. This volume emphasizes the idea that fungi are not alone in the regulation of these processes. It addresses the main processes occurring in ecosystems and showing where and how fungi are critical, and enables readers to gain a better understanding of the role of fungi in shaping ecosystems. "Fungi in Ecosystem Processes" considers the negative impact of fungi on faunal productivity and includes more than 1200 citations.
Phenology refers to recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, such as leafing and flowering, maturation of agricultural plants, emergence of insects, and migration of birds. It is also the study of these recurring events, especially their timing and relationships with weather and climate. Phenological phenomena all give a ready measure of the environment as viewed by the associated organism, and are thus ideal indicators of the impact of local and global changes in weather and climate on the earth’s biosphere. Assessing our changing world is a complex task that requires close cooperation from experts in biology, climatology, ecology, geography, oceanography, remote sensing, and other areas. Like its predecessor, this second edition of Phenology is a synthesis of current phenological knowledge, designed as a primer on the field for global change and general scientists, students, and interested members of the public. With updated and new contributions from over fifty phenological experts, covering data collection, current research, methods, and applications, it demonstrates the accomplishments, progress over the last decade, and future potential of phenology as an integrative environmental science.
Climate and other environmental changes are drawing unprecedented concern and attention from national governments, international organizations and local communities. Global warming has left noticeable impacts on the environment and the ecosystems it supports (including humans), and has important implications for sustainable economic and social development in the future. Satellite observations of climate and environmental change have become an increasingly important tool in recent years in helping to shape the response of international communities to this critical global challenge. The book presents the latest advances in satellite-based remote sensing of the Earth’s environment - ranging from applications in climate and atmospheric science to hydrology, oceanography, hydrology, geomorphology, ecology and fire studies. Introductory chapters also cover key technical aspects such as instrumentation, calibration, data analysis, and GIS tools for decision-making.
This book examines the impacts of global change on terrestrial ecosystems. Emphasis is placed on impacts of atmospheric, climate and land use change, and the book discusses the future challenges and the scientific frameworks to address them. Finally, the book explores fundamental new research developments and the need for stronger integration of natural and human dimensions in addressing the challenge of global change.
The investigations refer to the development of plant phenology since the 1960s in Germany. Spatiotemporal trends were assessed by means of regression kriging. It could be shown that there already is a distinct shift of phenological onset towards the beginning of the year of up to two weeks. In future, a shift of up to one month was calculated till 2080. Moreover, a prolongation of the vegetation period of up to three weeks was found. The findings are relevant for the development of mitigation measures to prevent from environmental, agricultural and economic issues due to climate change.
This book describes an integrated approach to using remotely sensed data in conjunction with geographic information systems for landscape analysis. Remotely sensed data are compressed into an analytical image-map that is compatible with the most popular geographic information systems as well as freeware viewers. The approach is most effective for landscapes that exhibit a pronounced mosaic pattern of land cover.
Focusing on the oft-overlooked herbaceous layer of eastern forests, this volume combines perspectives from different levels of biological organization (ecophysiology to ecosystems) and forest types (from the eastern boreal forest to southeastern pine forests) into a synthesis of our knowledge of the ecology of this important forest layer. This is the first book of its kind to synthesize information concerning herbaceous layer structure, composition, and dynamics of a variety of forest ecosystem types in eastern North America. With over 1,200 references cited in the 14 chapters, this book represents the most comprehensive review of literature on the ecology of the herbaceous layer.
Plant Strategies, Vegetation Processes, and Ecosystem Properties, Second Edition, is a thoroughly updated and comprehensive new edition of the very successful Plant Strategies and Vegetative Processes, which controversially proposed the existence of widely-recurring plant functional types with predictable relationships to vegetation structure and dynamics. This second edition uses evidence from many parts of the world to re-examine these concepts in the light of the enormous expansion in the literature. Features include: * A new section covering all aspects of ecosystem properties * New chapters on Assembling of Communities Rarification and Extinction Colonisation and Invasion * Principles and methodologies of a range of international tests including case study examples * Chapter summaries for a quick reference guide * Index of species names Written in a very readable style, this book is an invaluable reference source for researchers in the areas of plant, animal, and community ecology, conservation and land management. 'Written by one of the foremost authorities in the field, summarising over 35 years of research. A book all plant ecologists will want to read.' - Jonathan Silvertown, Department of Biological Sciences, The Open University, UK. 'The coverage is outstanding and comprehensive.' - Simon A. Levin, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, USA
Deserts provide a harsh and inhospitable environment for plants and animals, and the ecosystem is correspondingly fragile and prone to disruption by a variety of external factors. This book presents an overview of plant and animal ecology in the Mojave Desert, concentrating on data from a number of major research projects in Rock Valley, Nevada. The resulting synthesis describes community structure and dynamics in desert e cosystems, and will be valuable to graduate students and researchers interested in desert ecology.
"Herbivores influence, and often regulate energy flow. I investigated interactions between herbivory and the foods on which geese rely while nesting and rearing their broods on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in southwestern Alaska. In a captive Cackling Canada gosling (Branta Canadensis minima) experiment I decoupled the effects of seasonal declines in forage quality and availability on gosling development. An 11% decline in forage quality translated to goslings that were structurally smaller and 100 g lighter at 31 days of age. Forage availability had similar effects on gosling size, and the combined magnitude of these effects are similar to those observed in wild populations. I manipulated within-season grazing history of 'Carex subspathacea' swards within brood-rearing areas used by Black Brant geese (Branta bernicla nigricans). Spatial variation in forage quality and availability exceeded seasonal variation. Brant consumed over 95% of the annual aboveground production of these swards without any short- or apparent long-term effects on aboveground growth. Adding grazing pressure to 'C. ramenskii, ' or removing grazing pressure from 'C. subspathacea, ' resulted in a bi-directional shift in the morphology and nutritional characteristics of these sedges. The areal extent of 'C. subspathacea' increased 2 to 8% of the Tutakoke landscape with a concomitant decrease in 'C. ramenskii' meadows between 1991-1998. Brant have been increasing the carrying capacity of the Tutakoke River colony following a population decline in the early 1980's. The population has increased beginning in 1988, yet remains below historic numbers. Density-dependent effects on gosling growth accompanied the population increase initially. However, gosling mass has increased over the past decade due to herbivore-mediated increases in the areal extent of grazing lawns"--Leaves iii-iv.

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