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Designed to provide a comprehensive, step-by-step approach to organic process research and development in the pharmaceutical, fine chemical, and agricultural chemical industries, this book describes the steps taken, following synthesis and evaluation, to bring key compounds to market in a cost-effective manner. It describes hands-on, step-by-step, approaches to solving process development problems, including route, reagent, and solvent selection; optimising catalytic reactions; chiral syntheses; and "green chemistry." Second Edition highlights: • Reflects the current thinking in chemical process R&D for small molecules • Retains similar structure and orientation to the first edition. • Contains approx. 85% new material • Primarily new examples (work-up and prospective considerations for pilot plant and manufacturing scale-up) • Some new/expanded topics (e.g. green chemistry, genotoxins, enzymatic processes) • Replaces the first edition, although the first edition contains useful older examples that readers may refer to Provides insights into generating rugged, practical, cost-effective processes for the chemical preparation of "small molecules" Breaks down process optimization into route, reagent and solvent selection, development of reaction conditions, workup, crystallizations and more Presents guidelines for implementing and troubleshooting processes
CCH's Practical Guide to Research and Development Tax Incentives--Federal, State, and Foreign by Michael Rashkin, J.D., LL.M., provides something that has been missing in professional tax literature--authoritative, comprehensive coverage of this complex and evolving topic. This newly expanded resource is practical, easy to follow, easy to understand, and is particularly effective at clarifying and demystifying this complex subject. It provides well-written, detailed guidance on claiming the federal credit for increasing research activities and the deduction for R & D expenditures. In doing so, it explains the elements of qualified research, exclusions, computational rules, and basic research payment credits. Historically, the IRS has been vigilant in denying R & D credits. This resource explains how to satisfy the IRS's requirements, document the credit, and defend against IRS challenges. It also examines research incentives offered by individual states and describes the R & D incentives available in the major economies of the world, offering helpful charts that show the key differences among the various countries.
Research and Practical Issues of Enterprise Information Systems II, Volume 2 presents work from the IFIP TC 8 WG 8.9 International Conference on the Research and Practical Issues of Enterprise Information Systems (CONFENIS 2007). Enterprise information systems (EIS) have become increasingly popular over the last 15 years. EIS integrate and support business processes across functional boundaries in a supply chain environment. In recent years, more and more enterprises world-wide have adopted EIS such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) for running their businesses. Previously, information systems such as CAD, CAM, MRPII and CRM were widely used for partial functional integration within a business organization. With global operation, global supply chain, and fierce competition in place, there is a need for suitable EIS such as ERP, E-Business or E-Commerce systems to integrate extended enterprises in a supply chain environment with the objective of achieving efficiency, competency, and competitiveness. As an example, the global economy has forced business enterprises such as Dell and Microsoft to adopt ERP in order to take the advantage of strategic alliances within a global supply chain environment. Today, not only the large companies, but also the medium companies are quickly learning that a highly integrated EIS is more and more a required element of doing business. Businesses all over the world are investing billions of dollars in acquiring and implementing EIS in particular ERP systems by SAP and Oracle. As a result, there is a growing demand for researching EIS to provide insights into challenges, issues, and solutions related to the design, implementation and management of EIS.
This volume presents work from the IFIP TC 8 WG 8.9 International Conference on the Research and Practical Issues of Enterprise Information Systems (CONFENIS 2007). Enterprise information systems (EIS) have become increasingly popular. EIS integrate and support business processes across functional boundaries in a supply chain environment. In recent years, more and more enterprises world-wide have adopted EIS such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) for running their businesses.
Covers applications of fuzzy technology, in sections on engineering and natural sciences, medicine, management, and behavioral, cognitive, and social sciences, with a final section on tools. Specific subjects include fuzzy control in the process industry, ecological modeling and data analysis, fuzzy logic and possibility theory in biomedical engineering, fuzzy sets methodologies in actuarial science, fuzzy set theory and applications in psychology, fuzzy sets in human factors and ergonomics, and software methodology and design tools. Further topics include strategic planning, image processing in medicine, and fuzzy and crisp approaches to production planning and scheduling.

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